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Lymphatic & Immune

Chapter 16 Anatomy & Physiology

Specialized lymphatic vessels in the small intestines absorb fats and fat-soluble vitamins. Absorption of Fats
returns excess tissue/interstitial fluid back to the bloodstream. Maintenance of fluid balance
lymph nodes and other lymphatic organs filter lymph to remove microorganisms and foreign particles Immunity
Fluid in the lymphatic vessels Lymph
Clear, Colorless Fluid similar to plasma but with a lower protein content. Lymph
originates in the tissues as fluid left behind following capillary exchange Lymph
Helps Maintain Blood pressure by maintaining blood volume. Lymph
Carry Lymph Lymphatic Vessels
Similar to veins, theses vessels have thin walls and valves to prevent backflow Lymphatic Vessels
ITs walls are formed by a thin layer of epithelial cells. Lymphatic Vessels
the cells forming in this vessel's walls overlap loosely, allowing gaps to exist between the cells Lymphatic Vessels
Found in the interstitial spaces of most tissues usually in blood capillary beds Lymphatic Vessels
unlike blood vessels, lymphatic vessels carry fluid in ______ direction. One
Specialized lymph capillaries in the Villi of the small intestine. Lecteals
Absorb fat soluble products Lacteals
Drains lymph for the upper right quadrant of the body into the right subclavian vein Right Lymphatic Duct
Drains lymph from the rest of the body into the left subclavian Vein Left Lymphatic Duct
Lymph in the extremities flows Via the _________________. Skeletal Muscle Pump
What valves are made of Endothelium
Creates pressure during breathing to push lymph from the vessels the lungs and chest cavity Respiratory Pump
Lump elsewhere is pushed towards the heart by _________________ of the other lymph vessels Vasoconstriction
Located in the mediastinum Thymus
Smaller then nodes. Lymph Nodules
They are not unencapsulated Lymph Nodules
Found beneath all mucosa. Lymph Nodules
Lymphatic nodules found in the small intestines Prayer's Parcels
these organs include red bone marrow, the thymus, lymph nodes, the tonsils, and the spleen. Lymphatic organs
Provide a location for B and T lymphocytes to mature Primary lymphatic organs
Contain lymphocytes that have matured in either the red blood marrow or the thymus. Secondary Lymphatic Organs
Larger in the Fetus Thymus
Smaller in Adults Thymus
Divided into Lobules Thymus
Connective tissue that extends into the node, dividing it into compartments Trabeculae
A fibrous ______ encloses each lymph node Capsule
The Compartments in a lymph node that are filled with lymphocytes. Cortical Nodules
A less dense area at the center of compartments. Germinal Centers
form and release lymphocytes when an infection is present Germinal Centers
they lined with macrophages capable of phagocytosis separate the compartments Sinuses
Channel Fluid into the node Afferent Lymphatic Vessels
Slowly after filtering through the node, lymph leaves the node Efferent Lymphatic Vessels
found in the neck Cervical Lymph nodes
monitor lymph coming from the head and the neck Cervical Lymph nodes
clustered in the armpit. Axillary Lymph nodes
receive lymph from the arm and breast Axillary Lymph nodes
Occur in the groin Inguinal Lymph nodes
they receive lymph from the legs Inguinal Lymph nodes
Masses of Lymphoid tissue. Tonsils
From a protective circle at the back of the thoat Tonsils
they guard against pathogens entering the body through the nose and throat Tonsils
also called adeniods Pharyngeal Tonsil
sits on the wall of the pharynx, just behind the nasal cavity Pharyngeal Tonsil
lies in the posterior of the oral cavity Palatine Tonsils
are concentrated in patches on each side of the base of the tongue Palatine Tonsils
Flows Blood back to the Blood stream Lymph Flow
Mainly consists of lymphocytes in the framework of connective tissue Lymphatic Tissue
white blood cells migrate here and become activated Lymphatic Tissue
the thymus has ________ that produce most of the T lymphocytes Stem Cells
Lymphocytes proliferate in response to infection in all ___________. Lymphatic Tissue
About the Size of your fist and is the largest lymphatic organ Spleen
it resides in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen, just inferior to the diaphragm, where is protected by the ribs Spleen
the spleen is surrounded by a fibrous ________. Capsule
Contains two types tissues called red pulp and white pulp Spleen
Contains compact masses of lymphocytes White Pulp
surrounds the arteries leading into each compartment White Pulp
exists along the edges of compartments. Red Pulp
it consists of a network of erythrocyte-filled sinuses supported by a framework of reticular fibers and phagocytic cells Red Pulp
Blood collects in the venous sinuses after passing through the reticular fibers; it then returns to the heart though the veins Red Pulp
Lymphocytes and macrophages in the white pulp screen passing blood for foreign antigens while phagocytic cells in the sinuses ingest and destroy any microorganisms Immunity
Macrophages in the sinuses digest worn out Red blood cells and imperfect platelets. Destruction Of old Blood cells
The spleen sores 20% to 30% of the body's platelets Blood Storage
consequently, it can help stabilize blood volume by rapidly adding blood back into general circulation Blood Storage
The spleen produces red blood cells in the fetus Hematopoiesis
Not a Vital organ in adults Spleen
_______ is sent to the liver though the hepatic portal vein Bilirubin
people without this organ are slightly more susceptible to pneumonia meningitis Spleen
Mutated cells can also be recognized as foreign due to your Immunity
Organ Transplants can also be recognized as foreign due to your Immunity
External Barriers First Line of defense
Skin is considered First Line of defense
A thin layer of acid produced by skin secretions Acid Mantle
Further inhibiting bacterial growth Acid Mantle
the Lining the digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts that produces mucus that physically traps pathogens Mucus Membranes
the enzyme in mucus, tears, and saliva. Lysozyme
The second line of defense is also called Nonspecific Immunity
General Broad-range response Nonspecific Immunity
Also known as Innate immunity Second line of Defense
Cells that gulf and destroy pathogens and debris Phagocytes
When a phagocyte encounters a pathogen it sends out a projection from the cell membrane called Pseudopods
The pseudopods envelopes the pathogen and pinches off inside the cell and form a sac called a________ or vacuole Phagosome
Roam the body and seeking out bacteria Neutrophils
remain fixed within strategic areas Macrophage
the chemical release from inflamed cells to summon traveling Neutrophils Chemotaxis
the process when Neutrophils use enzymes to digest a portion of the basement membrane, which allows them to squeeze out of a vessel and enter the inflamed tissue. Diapedesis
Macrophages evolve from __________ Monocytes
they migrate into connective tissues where they grow several times larger then their original size and transform into Macrophages Monocytes
It means "Large Eaters" Macrophages
congregate in areas where microbial invasion is likely to occur: the alveolus of the lungs, the liver, nerve tissue, bone, and the spleen Macrophages
produced by our cells when infected with a virus Interferon
binds to surface receptors in neighboring cells Interferon
this triggers the production on enzymes within the cells that would prevent the virus from replicating if it managed to invade Interferon
circulate in the bloodstream in a inactive form, waiting to assist in the immune response. Complement
Over 20 types of proteins Complement
Can trigger complement _________ which destroys the bacteria or triggers phagocytosis Fixation
A unique group of Lymphocytes Natural Killer Cells
Continually roaming the body, seeking out pathogens diseased cells Natural Killer Cells
they recognize and destroy any foreign cells including cancer cells, virus-infected cells, and bacteria Natural Killer Cells
The Cells that can destroy the cells in transplants and tissues. Natural Killer Cells
The secretion of chemicals that natural killer cells produce that causes the cell to die and brake apart Lysis
tissue injury, whether from trauma, ischemia or infection Inflammation
Stimulates the body's defense system to begin fighting the infection while instigating measures to contain the pathogen Inflammation
the process that clean up and repair the damaged tissue Inflammation
embed themselves into the bacterium's plasma membrane in ring-like circles, effectively punching a hole in the bacterium Membrane Attack Complex
results from fluid leaking out of the capillaries Swelling
Results from hyperemia Redness and Heat
may result from injured nerves, pressure in the nerves from swelling, or stimulation of nerves by bacterial toxins Pain
Brings materials necessary for healing including oxygen and amino acids Hyperemia
Thick yellowish fluid of dead cells that pile up to seal a cut or injury Pus
When pus accumulates in a tissue cavity Abscess
Fever is an abnormal elevation of body temperature Pyrexia
A person having a fever is said to be _______ Febrile
Helps with healing by increasing temperature making the environment harder for pathogen reproduction Fever
As neutrophils and macrophages phagocytize bacteria, they secrete a fever-producing substance called Pyrogen
stimulates the anterior hypothalamus to secrete prostaglandin E (PGE) Pyrogen
immune response that targets foreign cells or host cells that have become infected with a pathogen Cellular Immunity
Also called Cell-mediated Cellular Immunity
Immune response that uses antibodies to target pathogens outside of the host cells Humoral Immunity
the body routinely makes its own antibodies or T cells against a pathogen Active Immunity
to achieve active immunity after receiving an injection of antibodies from another person or animal Passive Immunity
the type of immunity that occurs when the body antibody T cells after being exposed to a particular antigen Natural Active Immunity
the results when the body makes T cells and antibodies against a disease as a result of a vaccination. Artificial Active Immunity
By injecting a vaccine containing dead or weakened pathogens, the recipient's body produces an immune response without actually developing the illness Artificial Active Immunity
this Form of immunity results when a fetus acquires antibodies from the mother though the placenta Natural Passive Immunity
This form of immunity happens when a baby acquires antibodies from the mother though breast feeding Natural Passive Immunity
this form of immunity involves obtaining serum from a person or animal that has produced antibodies against a certain pathogen and then injecting it into someone else Artificial Passive Immunity
this form of immunity is typically used in emergencies for treatment of rabies and botulism Artificial Passive Immunity
Commonly known as T Cells, they develop m stem cells in red bone marrow T Lymphocytes
Commonly known as B Cells, also begin life as stem cells in red bone marrow B Lymphocytes
T cells mature in the Thymus
B cells mature in the Bone marrow
Antibodies are also known as Immunoglobulins
Any molecule that triggers an immune response Antigen
Populates mucus membranes in the intestines, respiratory tract, and urinary tract IgA
Also found in saliva, tears and breast milk IgA
Exists in the blood in very small amounts IgD
May activate basophils and mast cells IgD
involved in allergic reactions IgE
is the primary antibody of the secondary immune response IgG
Active in the primary immune response IgM
Also called Killer T Cells- not to be confused with natural killer cells! Cytotoxic T Cells
The body manufactures how many classes of antibodies? Five
Has a supportive role in destroying pathogens that exist within a cell Helper T Cells
Remember the pathogen in case of future invasion Memory T Cells
the phagocyte that displays fragments of antigen n its surface Antigen-presenting cell (APC)
Alerts the immune system to the presence of a foreign antigen Antigen Presentation
the chemical secreted by helper t cells Interleukin
the most common type of hypersensitivity Allergy
A condition which the immune system reacts to environmental substances Allergens
Created by: Leci81



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