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Am Gov 1 & 2

Constitution & Federalism

What is Politics? The process of peacefully reconciling social and economic differences.
Capitalism An economic system based on private ownership of property and free economic competition amond individuals and busisness
ideology a set of ideas concerning the proper political and economic system under which people should live or think they should have.
government the political and administrative organization of a state, nation, or locality.
collective goods something of value that, by its nature, can be made available only to everbody or not to anyone at all.
positive state a government that helps provide the goods, services, and conditions for a prosperous, equitable society.
minimilaist state a government that restricts its activities to providing only goods taht the free market cannot produce.
democracy a system of government based on majority rule, protection of minority and individual rights, and the equality of all citizens befor the law.
Constitutionalism The belief in limiting governmentpowere by a written charter.
The values of the preamble "to form a perfect Union, establish, justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of Liberty.
Constitutional Functions outline the organization of government, grants power, mainstay of rights, and symbol of the nation.
The Declaration of Independence themes humankind shares equality, government is the creation and servant of the people, the rights that all intrinsically posess constitute a higher law binding government, governments are bound by ther own laws.
Articles of Confederation This first plan of a national government for the 13 American states was replaced by the Constitution. Under the Articles, the states retained most political power.
confedration a loose union of seperate states
The main provisions of the Articles of Confederation the Articles preserved ate autonomy,guaranteed equal representation for the states, granted the central government only a few important powers, provided for No separate executive branch and no national courts, and made ammendment almost impossible.
Shay's Rebellion a revolt by farmers from Massachusetts over the lack of economic relief, led many to believe that a stronger central government was necessary.
Annapolis Convention The meeting of delegates from five states in Annapolis, Maryland to consider a common policy for trade among the American states resulting in a recommendation for a constitutional convention the following year.
Northwest Ordinance This major statute enacted by Congress under the Article of Confederation providing the development and government of lands west of Pennsylvania.
Philadelphia Convention the delegates adopted secrecy, freedom to maneuver, explore, and compromise.
Virgina Plan The first plan of the union propsed at the Constitutional Convention calling for a strong central government.
New Jersey Plan Introduced in the Constitutional Convention in the opposition to the Virgina Plan, it emphasized the dominance of the states.
Great Compromise Sometimes call the Conneticut Compromise, an agreement to accept representation by population in the House and by states in the Senate was arranged by delegation from Conneticut.
three- fitfths compromise a temporary resolution to the controvery over slavery, this agreement allowed slaveholding states to count each slave as 3/5 of a person for purposes of congressional representation.
Federalists A term for persons who advocated ratification of the Constitution and generally favored a strong central government, it was also the name of the dominant political party during the administrations of President George Washington and John Adams.
Antifederalists In the first years of government under the Constitution, Anti-federalist in Congress-persons who opposed ratificationof the Constitution opposed policies such as a national bank associated with a strong central government.
The Federalist (papers) A series of 85 essays written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison and published in New York newspapers and urged ratification of the Constitution.
rebublican an elect to represent and make decisions in their place in republican (representative) government.
checks and balances The system of separate institutions sharing some powers that the Constitution mandates for the national government, its purpose is to keep power divided among the three branches: legislative, executive, judicial.
elastic clause The "necessary and proper" clause of Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution is the source of "implied posers" for the national government, as explained in McCulloch v. Maryland.
writ of mandamus Order by a court to a public official to perform a nondiscretionary or ministerial act.
Marbury v. Madison Landmark decision by the Supreme Court establishing the Supreme Court's power of judicial review.
original jurisdiction Authority of a court over cases that begin in that court- Courts of general jurisiction have original jurisdiction over most criminal offenses. The original jurisdiction of the US Supreme Court is very small.
appellate jurisdiction Includes cases a court receives from lower courts, Congress defines the appellate jurisdiction of the US Supreme Court.
judicial review The authority of courts to set aside a legislative act as being in violation of the Constitution.
Kentucky & Virginia Resolutions A challenge to national supremacy, these state documents declared states to be the final authority on the meaning of the Constitution.
federalism A system of government in which both the nation and state governments share power within the same political system.
confederation A loose association of states in which dominant political power lies with the member states and not with the central government.
unitary system a system of government in which principal power lies at the level of a national or central government rather than at the level of some smaller unit within the political system.
interstate compact a fromal agreement between states designed to solve a probem facing more than one state when such an agreement is necessary because political problems are not limited by geopraphic boundaries.
Electoral College Institution established by the Constitution for electing the president and vice president and whose members actually elect the president and vice president
New Federalism A view of federalism that posists an expanded role for state and local governments and holds that state and local governments should be entrusted with greater responsiblilities
delegated powers Legal authority that the peole in the states granted to the national government for certain purpose by ratifying the Constitution. Delegated powers can be either express or implied.
express powers Powers specifically enumerated i the Constitution but implicit in powers expressly granted by the Constitution
implied powers Powers of national government not pecifically cited in the Constitution but implicit in powers expressly granted by the Constitution.
reserved powers Powers not specifically prohibited to the states and not delegated to the national government by the Constitution.
Tenth Amendment Amendment ratified in 1791 that reserves to the states powers not prohibited to them and not delegated to the national government by the Constitution.
home rule A legal status in which local governments, especially large cities, can determine for themselves within broad parameters their own powers and functions wihtout interference from the state government.
mayor-council A form of government at the local level at mirrors the executive-legislative structure at the state and national levels where the mayor has executive powers and the council has legislative powers.
dual federalism A model of federalism in which national and state governments are separate and independent from each other, with each level exercising its own powers in it own jurisdiction.
marble cake federalism A model of federalism in which th intertwining relationships between the national, state, and local governments are likened to the intertwining flavors in a marble cake.
Sixteenth Amendment Amendment to the Constitution, ratified in 1913, that gave Congress the powere to tax incomes and therby massively increase the potential revenue available to the national government.
categorical grant-in-aid Transfers of cash from the national to state and/or local goverments for some specific purpose, usually with the accompanying requirement that state and local governments match the national money with some funds of their own
block grant Transfers of cash form the nationalto state and lcoal governments in which state and local officials are allowed discretion in spending the money within some broad policy area, such as community development.
Created by: Msmlb_93
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