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Vascular System

Chapter 15 Anatomy & Physiology

QuestionAnswer
carries blood AWAY from the heart Arteries
Carries blood TOWARDS the heart Veins
Connects the smallest arteries to the smallest veins Capillaries
results from the pressure of blood against a weakened area in the wall of an artery. Aneurysm
Veins are sometimes called _________ vessels because of their capacity for storing blood. Capacitance
Results when fluid filters out the capillaries faster then it's absorbed and accumulates in the tissues. Edema
the most important mechanism of capillary exchange. Diffusion
the circulatory system that begins at the left ventricle and involves the circulation of blood though the body. Systemic
the circulatory system that begins at the right ventricle and involves the circulation of blood through the lungs. Pulmonary
unique capillary found in the liver and bone marrow that allows for passage of large substances, such as proteins. Sinusoid
where nutrients, waste, and hormones are transferred between the blood and tissues. Capillaries
Capillaries are called the ________ vessels of the circulatory system. Exchange
They are also called Resistance Vessels. Arterioles
connected to capillaries by short connecting vessels called metarterioles. Arterioles
these arteries carry blood further away from the heart to specific organs and areas of the body. Distributing Arteries
Also know as Muscular arteries. Distributing Arteries
These arteries are smaller in diameter then elastic arteries Distributing Arteries
The body's largest arteries Conducting Arteries
these arteries expand as blood surges into them and recoils when the ventricles relax. Conducting Arteries
they are also known as elastic arteries. Conducting Arteries
the walls of both arteries and veins. Tunics
the innermost layer, is exposed to the blood. Tunic intima
it consists of a simple squamous epithelium called endothelium. Tunic intima
its smooth surface keeps blood flowing freely, without sticking to the vessel wall. Tunic intima
this layer also produces chemicals that causes the blood vessels to dilate or constrict. Tunic intima
known as the middle layer and is the thickest layer. Tunic Media
composed with smooth muscle and elastic tissue, it allows the blood to change diameter Tunic Media
the smooth muscle in this layer is innervated by the autonomic nervous system. Tunic Media
known as the outer layer Tunic Externa
this layer is made of strong, flexible, fibrous connective tissue. Tunic Externa
this layer supports and protects the blood vessel. Tunic Externa
in veins this is the thickest of the three layers Tunic Externa
in arteries, it's usually a little thinner then the middle layer. Tunic Externa
result from a congenital weakness of the vessel wall, trauma, or bacterial infection. Aneurysm
these are the smallest veins and collect blood from capillaries. Venules
have very thin walls, consisting of little more then a few endothelial cells. Venules
they are porous and can exchange fluid with surrounding tissue. Venules
formed by the convergence venules on their route toward the heart. Medium-sized veins
these veins have a thinker, more elastic walls. Medium-sized veins
these veins contain one-way valves. Medium-sized veins
formed from the thin endothelium lining, this veins valves keep blood moving toward the heart and prevent backflow. Medium-sized veins
veins in the legs, which must fight the forces of gravity as they transport blood to the heart. Medium-sized veins
this vein contains the most valves Medium-sized veins
formed by medium-sized veins converge Large veins
these veins have a think tunic externa Large veins
these vessels are composed of only an endothelium and basement membrane. Capillaries
have extremely thin walls through which substances can filter. Capillaries
have very small diameters, barely wide enough for red blood cells to pass. Capillaries
Capillaries are organized into networks called Capillary beds
Capillaries form what is called the ___________. Microcirculation
they are the beginning of each capillary bed and regulates the flow of blood into the network. Precapillary sphincter
a mechanism use by capillaries to release chemicals, including oxygen, glucose, hormones, and nutrients that will be used by surrounding tissues. Diffusion
A mechanism use by capillaries to tale up waste, such as carbon dioxide and ammonia. Filtration
The mechanism used to take up substances that need to be transported to other parts of the body. these include glucose, calcium, antibodies, and hormones. Filtration
the mechanism where water moves in and out of capillaries Osmosis
Diffusion is based on Concentration
Filtration is based on Pressure
Osmosis is based on concentration BUT though a ____________ membrane (the endothelium) Selectivity Permeable
A system of vessels in which blood passes though a capillary network, a large vessel, and then another capillary network before returning to the systematic circulation. Portal System
A natural connection between two vessels Anastomosis
The mechanism that occurs on the arterial side of the capillary bed Filtration
the mechanism that occurs on the Venous side of the capillary bed Osmosis
Provide an alternate route of blood in case a vessel becomes obstructed Anastomosis
The body contains how may major pathways of circulation ? two
Pathway of circulation that begins at the right ventricle and involves the circulation blood through the lungs. Pulmonary Circulation
the pathway of Circulation that begins at the left ventricle and involves circulation of blood through the body. Systemic Circulation
Routes blood to and from the lungs to exchange carbon dioxide for oxygen Pulmonary Circulation
the pathway of circulation that supplies oxygen and nutrients to organs and removes waste Systemic Circulation
Pulmonary circulation starts at the Right Ventricle
In Pulmonary Circulation: Blood from the right ventricle travels to the Pulmonary Trunk
In Pulmonary Circulation: Blood from the Pulmonary Trunk travels to the Left & Right Pulmonary Arteries
In Pulmonary Circulation: Blood from the Right and Left Pulmonary Arteries Travels to the Lungs
In Pulmonary Circulation: Blood From the Lungs travels to the Right & Left Pulmonary Veins
In Pulmonary Circulation: Blood from the Right and left Pulmonary veins travel to the Left Atrium
Pulmonary Arteries carry what kind of blood? Deoxygenated
Pulmonary Veins Carry what kind of Blood? Oxygenated
Pulmonary Circulation is the opposite of what Pathway of circulation? Systemic Circulation
Systemic Circulation is the opposite of what pathway of circulation? Pulmonary Circulation
Systemic Circulation begins in the Left Ventricle
In Systemic Circulation: Blood from the Left ventricle travels to the Aorta
In Systemic Circulation: Blood from the Aorta travels to the Arteries
In Systemic Circulation: Blood from the Arteries travel to the Arterioles
In Systemic Circulation: Blood form the Arterioles travel to the Capillaries
In Systemic Circulation: Blood from the Capillaries travels to the Veins
In Systemic Circulation: Blood from the Veins travels to the Superior Vena Cava
In Systemic Circulation: Blood From the Superior Vena Cava travels to the Right Atrium
The first Artery leave the heart is the Aorta
the left and right coronary arteries branch off of the __________ aorta to supply blood to the myocardium. Ascending
Curves over the heart and turns downward behind the heart, making a inverted "U" shape. Aortic Arch
though its branches, it supplies blood to the head and the right arm. Brachiocephalic Artery
These Arteries extends into the neck Common Carotid Arteries
This Artery supply blood to the left shoulder and upper arm Left Subclavian Artery
The _________ Aorta travels downward dorsal to the heart though the thoracic and abdominal cavities Descending
these Arteries supply blood to the lower pelvis and the leg Common iliac Arteries
The_______ Aorta and it branches, supply the chest wall and organs within the thoracic cavity Thoracic
______ trunk, divides in the gastric artery, the splenic artery, and the hepatic artery. Celiac
The artery that supplies the stomach Gastric
The artery that supplies the Spleen Splenic
the Artery that supplies the Liver Hepatic
the artery that supplies the kidneys Renal
_________ mesenteric Artery, supplies most of the small intestine and part of the colon Superior
_________ mesenteric artery, supplies most of the colon and large intestine Inferior
this artery Supplies blood to the arm Subclavian
the artery that is the continuation of the subclavian artery in the axillary region Axillary
the artery that is the continuation of the axillary artery and the artery most used for routine blood pressure measurement Brachial
the artery that is often palpated to measure a pulse Radial
the arteries that supply the pelvic organs, thighs, and lower extremities Common Iliac arteries
Circle of arteries at the base of the brain Circle of Willis
The _______ jugular vein drains most the blood from the brain. Internal
this vein, at its distal end, is a frequent site for the administration of intravenous fluids Cephalic Vein
the vein that is the most common site for drawing blood Median Cubital
this vein runs behind the knee. Popliteal
this vein drains the liver. Hepatic
this vein is the longest vein in the body Great Saphenous Vein
theses veins, reside near the body's surface, such as veins in the back of the hand Superficial Veins
veins that lie deep, well=protected areas, often alongside bones and their corresponding artery. Deep Veins
the difference in pressure between two structures Pressure Gradient
As the left ventricle contracts, it ejects blood into the aorta, producing a typical, normal pressure of 110mm Hg. Systolic Pressure
When a ventricle Relaxes, the pressure drops to an average of 70mm Hg Diastolic Pressure
Blood pressure consistently higher then 140mm Hg Systolic, over 90mm Hg Diastolic Hypertension
The force the blood exerts against the walls of vessels. Blood Pressure
Measured in mmHg Blood Pressure
Blood Pressure in the pulmonary circulation Pulmonary BP
Blood pressure in the systemic circulation Systemic BP
pressure when the left ventricle contracts. usually 90-120mm Hg Systolic
Pressure when the left ventricle contracts. usually 60-80mm Hg Diastolic
Secreted by the adrenal medulla when the body is under stress Epinephrine and Norepinphrine
Secreted by the adrenal medulla when blood pressure falls Aldosterone
Secreted by the posterior pituitary gland when the water content of the body falls ADH
released by the heart's atria when elevated blood pressure stretches the walls of the heart ANP
The Vasomotor Center is in the Medulla
Vasoconstrictor area sends signals to the__________ nervous system Sympathetic
Vasodilator area sends signals to the __________ Nervous system Parasympathetic
the reduction in the diameter of a vessel Vasoconstriction
increase in the diameter of a vessel Vasodilation
the body's chief vein, which serves to return blood to the heart Vena Cava
Resistance to blood flow resulting from friction of blood against the walls e vessels Peripheral resistance
the area in the medulla of the brain that send impulses to alter blood vessel diameter and therefore blood pressure Vasomotor Center
Muscles that surround the leg Veins and aid in venous return Skeletal Muscle Pump
the process of breathing, also promotes the flow of venous blood in the thoracic and abdominal cavities Respiratory Pump
Stimulates the kidneys to retain sodium Aldosterone
Promotes Vasoconstriction and water retention ADH
stimulates the kidneys to excrete sodium, reducing blood volume ANP
Created by: Leci81