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Nissing AP ch1

A&P Ch1 Intro to A&P

What do you do if you find out that Jen messed up and has a wrong answer somewhere? Email me at and I'll fix it! Thank you!
The study of internal and external structures of the body and the physial relationships among body parts, means "cutting open" Anatomy
The study of how living organisms perform their vital functions Physiology
Anatomy or physiology: Studying how a particular muscle attaches to the skeleton Anatomy
Anatomy or physiology: Studying how a muscle contracts Physiology
Medical Terminology: which part means basic, meaningful part of terms that cannot be broken down? Roots
Medical Terminology: Which part means a modification attached to the beginning of words to change their meaning? Prefix
Medical Terminology: Which part means modifications attached to the end of a word or word part to form another term? Suffix
When you put together root words with prefixes or suffixes, what is the final product called? Combining form
Commemorative names (like calling Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis "Lou Gerhig's Disease") are examples of what? Eponyms
The Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology and 56 international association members published this book of standard international anatomical vocabulary International Anatomical Terminology, Terminologia Anatomica, or TA
Gross Anatomy: This field studies the general form and superficial markings Surface anatomy
Gross Anatomy: This field focuses on anatomical organization of specific areas of the body Regional Anatomy
Gross Anatomy: This field studies the structure of organ systems Systemic Anatomy
Gross Anatomy: This field describes changes in form occuring between conception and physical maturity Developmental Anatomy
The most extensive structural changes occur during the first 2 months of development. The study of these early processes is called... Embryology
Gross Anatomy: These fields include pathological, radiographic, and surgical anatomy, and is based on subspeciaties in clinical practice Clinical Anatomy
Two major subdivisions of microscopic anatomy Cytology, Histology
Study of internal structure of individual cells Cytology
Study of tissues (groups of specialized cells and cell products that work together) Histology
Tissues combine to form these structures, and at this level microscopic anatomy crosses the line to macro. Organs (heart, kidney, liver, brain)
The study of the function of cells including chemical and molecular processes within and between cells Cell physiology
Study of function of specific organs, such as cardiac Organ physiology
Study of effects of diseases on organ or system functions Pathological physiology
A system of advancing knowledge by formulating a question, collecting data about it through observation/experiment, and testing the question The Scientific Method
Structural and functional components of cells Organelles
Group of cells working together to perform one or more specific function Tissue
Two or more tissues working in combination to perform several functions Organs
Group of organs interacting to perform a particular function Organ systems
Name the 11 Organ Systems Integumentary, Skeletal, Muscular, Nervous, Endocrine, Cardiovascular, Lymphatic, Respiratory, Digestive, Urinary, Reproductive
11 organ systems mnemonic Sir My Resolve Is Completely RUINED (CIRc, Musc, RESp, Immune/lymph, Cardio, Repro, Urin, Integ, Nerv, Endo, Digest) *Note Dr. Bob doesn't recognize Lymph
What are the major organs of the Lymphatic System? Spleen, Thymus, Lymphatic vessels and nodes, Tonsils *Note Dr. Bob doesn't recognize Lymph
The Liver is part of which organ system(s)? Digestive and Lymphatic
What is the highest level of organization? The Organism (Chemical, Cellular, Tissue, Organ, Organ system, Organism)
Medial or Lateral? Big Toe Medial
Medial or Lateral? Ulna Medial
Medial or Lateral? Fibula Lateral
Medial or Lateral? Thumb Lateral
Medial or Lateral? Radius Lateral
Medial or Lateral? Tibia Medial
Medial or Lateral? Little toe Lateral
Medial or Lateral? Little pinkie finger Medial
Another word for Anterior Ventral
Another word for Posterior Dorsal
What number refers to the thumb? 1 (first)
Visceral refers to a membrane that is where on an organ? Directly on the surface
Parietal refers to a membrane that is where on an organ? Further away from the organ surrounding its cavity
What are 3 organs that have visceral and parietal membranes? Heart (pericardium), Lungs (pleura) and intestines (peritoneum)
Term meaning the adjustment of physiological systems to preserve homeostasis Homeostatic regulation
a cell, tissue, organ, or organ system adjusts activities automatically in response to environmental change Autoregulation or intrinsic regulation
Activities of the nervous system or endocrine system to adjust or control activities of many other systems simultaneously Extrinsic regulation
Nervous or endocrine? Which system directs rapid, short-term responses? Nervous
Nervous or endocrine? Which system directs very specific responses? Nervous
Nervous or endocrine? Which system directs hormones through the body? Endocrine
Nervous or endocrine? Which system directs a response that may persist for days or weeks? Endocrine
Nervous or endocrine? Which system will cause you to make a reaction, like jumping back from pain? Nervous
Nervous or endocrine? Which system plays a major role in growth and development? Endocrine
Which part of the homeostatic regulatory system is sensitive to a particular stimulus or environmental change? Receptor
Which part of the homeostatic regulatory system is an integration center, receiving information and sending out commands? Control Center
Which part of the homeostatic regulatory system is the cell or organ that responds and actively opposes or enhances stimulus Effector
What is the desired value of homeostatic regulation called? Set Point
What term describes the body's relatively constant internal environment? Homeostasis
What does negative feedback do? Says "no I don't like it stop!" and minimizes, or negates, the original stimulus, keeping variation in key body systems within acceptable limits
Describe the body region: Antebrachium Forearm (elbow down)
Describe the body region: Axillary Region Armpit (Lateral thoracic)
Describe the body region: Brachium Upper arm
Describe the body region: Gluteal Region Butt
Describe the body region: Gastrocnemial Region Calf - also called sural
Describe the body region: Cervical Region Neck (think cervical collar). Portion of body surrounding cervical spine.
Describe the body region: Cubital Fossa Pit on front of elbow. Also called antecubital region (ante=front)
Describe the body region: Deltoid Region Shoulder
Describe the body region: Cranium Head
Describe the body region: Dorsum Back of body, top of foot
Describe the body region: Inguinal Region Groin and lower lateral regions of abdomen (the "v" portion where the abdomen meets the legs)
Describe the body region: Coxal Region Lateral hip
Describe the body region: Occipital Region Back of skull. Covers occipital lobe of brain, responsible for sight.
Describe the body region: Perineal AKA "taint", the diamond shaped portion of the base of the trunk between the genetalia and anus
Describe the body region: Manus Back of hands "Mano a mano" means hand to hand.
Describe the body region: Mammary Portion of breast including nipples. anterior to pectoral muscles
Describe the body region: Tarsal Region Foot
Describe the body region: Orbital Eye orbits
Describe the body region: Lower Extremity Legs
Describe the body region: Lumbar Region Portion of the back where the lumbar region of the spine is but extending laterally to cover that entire area of the back.
Describe the body region: Neck Also cervical
Describe the body region: Palmar Surface Palm of hand
Describe the body region: Patellar Region Patella, knee - specifically front
Describe the body region: Plantar surface Bottom of foot - "plantar flex" means point toe
Describe the body region: Popliteal Fossa Back of knee. Fossa means pit.
Describe the body region: Pubic Region Groin and genetalia
Describe the body region: Femoral Upper part of the leg, along the femur bone.
Describe the body region: Thoracic Portion of body along the thoracic portion of the spine, ie, the chest
Describe the body region: Mental Chin
Describe the body region: Crural Region Anterior, inferior (front bottom) part of legs, below the knee to above the ankles. Front of Gastrocnemial region.
Describe the body region: Carpal Region Wrist
Describe the body region: Pectoral Region Anterior portion of chest lateral to presternal region
Describe the body region: Sacral Base of spine medial to gluteal regions
Describe the body region: Buccal Region Cheekbones, but Buccal also refers to cheeks and interior of cheeks/gumline
Describe the body region: Scapular Region Two small regions at the tips of the scapulae on the superior, posterior portion of the trunk
Describe the body region: Digital Fingers and toes. Thumb(1) Index(2) Middle(3) Ring(4) Little(5) and Hallux(1), Long(2), third, fourth, fifth
Describe the body region: Calcaneal Heel of foot
Describe the body region: Pollex Thumb
Describe the body region: Frontal Forhead
Describe the body region: Nasal Nose
Describe the body region: Pelvic Between illiac crests, below umbilibus and above inguinal. Think pelvic girdle.
Subjective things a person experiences and describes but aren't otherwise detectable or measurable Symptom
Objective things that can be observed or measured Sign
Sign or Symptom: Objective/Observable Sign (I saw the sign! and measured it)
Sign or Symptom: Subjective/Sensing Symptom (Subjects Sense Symptoms, So I have to ask)
Sign or Symptom: Headache Symptom (I can't see it, but the pt senses it)
Sign or Symptom: Rash Sign (I can see it or measure it)
Sign or Symptom: Tummy feels upset Symptom (I can't see it, but the pt senses it)
Sign or Symptom: Nervous Symptom (I can't see it, but the pt senses it)
Sign or Symptom: Swelling at site of injury Sign (I can see it or measure it)
Sign or Symptom: Fever Sign (I can see it or measure it)
Sign or Symptom: Pain Symptom (I can't see it, but the pt senses it)
Sign or Symptom: Anxiety Symptom (I can't see it, but the pt senses it)
Sign or Symptom: Racing heart Sign
Where are the Receptors for thermoregulation? Skin, and one within the hypothalamus
What is the Set Point for thermoregulation? 37-C or 98.6-F
What are the Effectors for thermoregulation if temperature is above the Set Point? Muscle tissues in the walls of blood vessels supplying the skin, and sweat glands. The muscles dilate vessels, letting blood near the surface to cool, and the sweat glands sweat.
In this form of homeostatic regulation, an initial stimulus produces a response that enhances the original change in conditions. Positive Feedback
Positive feedback will exagerate a response to get the body through a potentially life threatening situation quickly. Give an example. Blood clotting. Labor.
A cycle where a response continues escalating is called... Positive Feedback Loop (Yes it's working! Keep doing that!)
What happens when an infection, injury, or genetic abnormaility is so severe that homeostatic mechanisms cannot fully compensate and the internal environment is out of normal limits? Illness or disease
Term meaning opposing processes or forces are in balance State of Equilibrium or Dynamic Equilibrium (ie, heat loss = heat production)
Superficial anatomy Structures on or near the body surface
Anatomical position Straight, upright, arms out, palms forward, feet together
Position where person is lying face up Supine
Position where person is lying face down Prone
Transverse Plane Horizontal, cross section, cuts body into upper and lower parts
Sagittal Plane Vertical, dividing body into left and right
Frontal Plane (coronal plane) Vertical, dividing body into front and back
Midsagittal or median section Vertical, dividing body into equal halves left and right
Parasagittal section Vertical, dividing body into unequal halves left and right
Cranial means toward the... Head
Caudal means toward the... Bottom
Posterior is also known as Dorsal
Anterior is also known as Ventral
Superior means above
Inferior means Below
Proximal means closer to the midline
Distal means further from the midline
Medial means toward the midline
Lateral means away from the midline
Deep means Farther from the body surface, ie, the bone is deep to the surrounding muscles
All things deep to the chest wall are within the Thoracic cavity
All things deep to the abdominal and pelvic wall are within the abdominopelvic cavity
The thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities are separated by the diaphragm
The embryo has a cavity that contains respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems called the ventral body cavity or coelm
The mediastinum contains... Trachea, esophagus, major vessels, pericardial cavity
The thoracic cavity contains the... Left and right pleural cavities, and mediastimum with pericardial cavity
The abdominopelvic cavity contains the... Peritoneal cavity, abdominal cavity, and pelvic cavity
Which cavity extends throughout the abdominal cavity and into the superior portion of the pelvic cavity? Peritoneal cavity
because they extend inferior to the peritoneal cavity, ureters, large intestine, and bladder are all called... infraperitoneal
Disease of short but severe duration acute
act of listening to sounds of body Auscultation
Treatment of disease or disorder with chemicals, especially cytotoxic Chemotherapy
Persistant or recurring illness Chronic
Images before and after radiopaque die administered then "subtracted" from eachother Digital Subtraction Angiography
Science of studying the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases and health factors epidemiology
Science of studying cause of disease etiology
Means "unknown cause" Idiopathic
Magnetic field and radio wave imaging Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Imaging showing chemical functioning of organ Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
Functional changes that accompany syndrome or disease Pathophysiology
Imaging made by reflecting sound waves off internal structures Ultrasound
High energy radiation imaging technique X-Ray
Created by: jenissing
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