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The Heart

Chapter 14 Anatomy & Physiology

QuestionAnswer
where do the great vessels enter and leave the heart? Base
the point if maximum impulse of the heart is the ____. Apex
Where can the strongest beat be heard or felt? Apex
The study of the heart and treatment of related disorders. Cardiology
The Broadest part of the heart is called the ____. Base
The pointy end of the heart is called the ____. Apex
surrounding the heart is a double-walled sac called the ___________. Pericardium
How big is your heart? about the size of your fist
the space between the lungs and beneath the sternum is called the __________. Mediastinum
In the Heart wall, what is the outermost layer called? Fibrous Pericardium
In the heart Wall, the loose fitting sac of strong connective tissue around the heart is called? Fibrous Pericardium
In the heart wall, the Serous Pericardium has two layers. What layer Covers the hearts surface? Visceral layer
In the hearts wall, the serous pericardium has two layers. what layer lines the inside of the fibrous pericardium? Parietal Layer
In the heart Wall, What layer contains a small amount of serous fluid, which helps prevent friction as the heart beats? Pericardial Cavity
The heart wall consists of 3 main layers, what layer lines the hearts chambers, covers the valve, and continues into the vessels? Endocardium
The Heart Wall consists of 3 main layers, what layer is composed of cardiac muscle, and forms the middle layer? Myocardium
The heart wall consists of 3 main layers, What layer is the THICKEST of the 3 and preforms the work of the heart? Myocardium
The heart Wall Consists of 3 main layers, what layer covers the hearts surface? Epicardium
What tissue prevent Blood clots From forming? Smooth tissue
The Endocardium is made out of what tissue? Smooth tissue
The heart Contains how many hollow chambers? Four
The two upper chambers of the heart are called: Atria
the two lower chambers of the heart are called: Ventricles
Each Valve is formed by two or three flaps called: Leaflets
The Valves that regulate the flow between the atria and the ventricles is called: Atrioventricular Valves
The Right AV valve, that prevents backflow from the right ventricle to the right atria is called: Tricuspid Valve
the Tricuspid valve has how many leaflets? Three
The left AV Valve, prevents backflow from the left ventricle to the left atria is called: Bicuspid Valve; Mitral Valve
the Bicuspid valve has how many leaflets? two
the Valves that regulate the flow between ventricles and great arteries is called: Semilunar Valves
What semilunar valve prevents backflow from the Lungs to the right ventricle? Pulmonary Valve
What semilunar valve prevents backflow from the aorta to the left ventricle? Aortic valve
A semi-rigid, fibrous, connective tissue that encircles each valve is called: Fibrous Skeleton
Fibrous connective tissue that anchors the valves and great vessels are called: Fibrous Skeleton
the right and left atria are separated by a common wall of myocardium called: Interatrial septum
the right and the left ventricles are separated by a walled called: Interventricular septum
Valves open and Close due to _________ created by myocardium contraction. Pressure
Strands of fibrous connective tissue that attach to the bottom of AV valve but NOT semilunar valves is called: Chordae Tendineae
an improper closing of valves is called: Heart murmur
the Right atrium has how many large caval veins? two
what vein in the right atrium receives blood from the upper body? Superior Vena Cava
what vein in the right atrium receives blood from the lower body? Inferior Vena Cava
the Right ventricle has ________ myocardium because it pumps to the lungs. Thin
the left ventricle has _______ myocardium because it pumps to the aorta. Thick
what vessels feed the heart muscle itself? Coronary Vessels
Prolonged ischemia that causes tissue death is called: Infarct
the side of the heart that deals with deoxygenated blood is: the Right atrium and ventricle
the side of the heart that deals with oxygenated blood is: The left atrium and ventricle
Projections of muscle off of the ventricular wall that attach to the other end of the chordae tendineae is: papillary muscles
check valves flow in _____ direction. one
you can hear the heart sounds when the valves do what? Close
what chamber receives deoxygenated blood returning from the body through the superior and inferior vena cavae? Right Atrium
what delivers oxygenated blood to the myocardium, while cardiac veins collect the deoxygenated blood? Coronary Arteries
Supplies blood to the right atrium, part of the left atrium, most of the right ventricle, and the inferior part of the left ventricle. Right Coronary Artery
this artery branches into the anterior descending and circumflex. Left coronary Artery
what ventricle has the most abundant blood supply? left ventricle
blood vessels or nerves that wind around the heart are called: Circumflex
A large transverse vein on the hearts posterior, which returns blood to the right atrium is: Coronary Sinus
the gender that will most likely die from first heart attack is? Women
A persistent pulse rate slower then 60 beats per minute is: Bradycardia
An ECG that appears normal is called normal _______ rhythm. Sinus
Pacemakers other then the SA node are called this Ectopic
and irregular heartbeat Arrhythmia
the ventricle with the thickest walls left ventricle
Polling if fluid in the abdomen Ascites
the blood remaining in the ventricles at the end of the ejection period is the ___________ volume Residual
A persistent, resting heart rate greater then 100 beats per minute tachycardia
pressure sensors in the aorta and internal carotid arteries that detect changes in blood pressure. Baroreceptors
the right and the left ventricles receive70% of their blood ___________ passively
results from an interruption of blood to the myocardium ischemia
Cell death necrosis
heart sound that results from turbulent blood flow through a stenotic valve. murmur
the amount of blood ejected with each heart beat is called: Stroke Volume
the amount of blood the heart pumps in 1 minute is called: cardiac output
to determine cardiac output you would multiply Heart Rate x stroke volume
the average resting cardiac output is between _____ liters per minute 5-6
when a heart rate increase, cardiac output increases
the nerve system can cause the heart rate to increase by sending impulses via to _____________ nervous system. Sympathetic
the ___________ nervous system sends signals to slow the heart rate. Parasympathetic
the amount if tension, or stretch, in a ventricular muscle just before it contracts is: Preload
the force with which the ventricular ejection occurs Contractility
sterling's law of the heart states that the more the ventricle is stretched the _____ forcefully it will contract more
the forces the heart must work against to eject it volume of blood is called the ________. afterload
factors that affect contractility are called. inotropic agents
factors that affect heart rate are called Chronotropic agents
this part of the wave form represents ventricular repolarization T wave
this part of the wave form represents atrial depolarization P wave
this part of the wave form represents ventricular depolarization QRS Complex
this part of the wave form represents the end of ventricular depolarization and the beginning of ventricular repolarization ST segment
Sinoatrial (SA) nodes fires at ________ beats per minute 60-80
AV node has a firing rate of _______ beats per minute 40-60
purkinje fibers have a firing rate of _______ beats per minute 20-40
the left and right coronary arteries arise from the ___________. Ascending Aorta
the coronary arteries receive their supply of blood during ventricular _________. Relaxation
A heart valve fails to prevent the backflow of blood during contraction is called ________, and the condition it causes is called insufficiency. incompetent
A condition resulting when a heart valve becomes narrowed, such as from scar tissue. Valvular stenosis
the pulmonary and aortic valves are also called Semilunar valves
the hearts inner layer Endocardium
phase of the cardiac cycle when the ventricles contract. systole
unique ability cardiac muscle to contract without nervous stimulation Automaticity
the period of cardiac muscle relaxation. diastole
Heart rate for adults 60-80
heart rate for children 100
heart rate for infants 120
heat rate for near term fetuses can be 140
athletes heart rate can be as low as 35
the medulla contains how many cardiac centers? two
the cardiac center that is carried by the SNS Accelerated Center
the cardiac center that is carried by the PSNS Inhibitory Center
the function of the heart is to. Pump Blood
the organ directly below the heart is the Diaphragm
the function of the serous fluid produced by the serous layers is to _____________ as the heart beats prevent friction
the Atria secretes what hormone when blood volume or blood pressure is increased? AMP
the term Systole means? Contraction
The term diastole means? Relaxation
term applied to the heart's ability to beat regularly. Rhythmicity
the parasympathetic nerves to the heart are called _________, which transmit impulses that decrease heart rate. Vagus nerves
a very rapid and uncoordinated ventricular beat Fibrillation
largest artery in the body Aorta
each normal heart beat is initiated by the: SA node
the vessel in which the left ventricle pumps blood is the Aorta
the heart is located: medial to the lungs and superior to the diaphragm
the purpose of the coronary vessels is to: supply the heart with oxygenated blood
the chambers of the heart that receive blood from the veins are: right and left atria
the centers that regulate the heart are located in: medulla
the electrical activity of the heart maybe depicted in an: ECG
the coronary sinus receives blood directly from the: Coronary veins
the first part of the cardiac conduction pathway in the ventricles is the: Bundle of his
the difference between resting cardiac output and maximum exercise cardiac output is called the: Cardiac Reserve
heart sounds, the first intercostal space, right sternal border is called. Aortic Area
heart sounds, the second intercostal space, left of the sternal border pulmonic area
heart sounds, the forth intercostal space, left of the sternal border tricuspid area
heart sounds, the fifth intercostal space, midclavicular line mitral area
Created by: Leci81