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Western Civ

The treaty of westphalia was created in what year 1648
what war was ended as a result of the treaty of westphalia 30 years war
what happened as a result of the treaty of westphalia the holy roman empire along with spain and germany collapsed and france/meritime states rose to power
jacobean: jacob is latin for james
jacobean stands for the age that followed Elizabethan Age
jacobean was ruled by James 6/1
jacobean age was the beginning of the golden age
jacobean age begins with the...in...which was a... union of the crowns (england and scottland)...1603...dual monarchy
james was a protestant (eased the feelings of the scotts)
james established the divine right of kings
james developed th king james bible (intellectually stimulating)
james brought in the idea of religious tolerance as long as all religions recognized him as king and read his bible
jacobite refers to james 6/1's grandson's followers or to the steward dynasty
jacobin refers to st jame's church in france during french revolution
the king james bible was aimed against puritan bible
The requirements for the Restoration of the ...were... English Monarchy (1660)...Charles II must not punish those who supported regicide (execution of his father)The king must 'remain' Protestant and head of the Anglican Church. He must also accept the Rights of Parliament
The Rights of Parliament were The power to control taxation Freedom from royal prerogative courts The right to meet at least every three years
The Rights of Parliament were abused by Charles I
The Royal Society for the ...established by royal charter this organization seemed to reflect ... Improving of Natural Knowledge (1664)...royal interest in and support for scientific and artistic development.
The Royal Society for the Improving of Natural Knowledge (1664)can also be seen however as a political propaganda scheme to swing public and intellectual favor towards the royal court after the Cromwellian Puritan repression of the previous two decades and the imposition of Parliamentary limits on the crown.
The Royal Society for the Improving of Natural Knowledge was Presided over by Sir Isaac Newton and including individuals such as Francis Bacon, Robert Boyle, Sir Peter Lely, Sir Joshua Reynolds, and Christopher Wren
Presided over by Sir Isaac Newton and including individuals such as Francis Bacon, Robert Boyle, Sir Peter Lely, Sir Joshua Reynolds, and Christopher Wren this forum becomes a center for some of the leading figures of the Scientific Revolution, and a foundation for the Enlightenment.
The Great Fire of London (1666) - originating in a bakery near the Tower of London
the Great Fire eventually destroyed virtually all of medieval London
The Great Fire of London was used by...to their... King Charles II and his younger brother... political advantage, first by joining in with the fire brigades to pull down buildings and slow the spread of the conflagration, and then by supporting the rebuilding of London
in the struggle with...this apperance of public leadership helped build... parliament over primacy...royal popularity in england and undermine restoration limitations of royal power
the bloody assizes of..followed the death of... 1685...king charles II
king charles II's illegitimate son led a rebellion against charles' younger brother, the new king James 7/2
the blood assizes: expecting support from the...the...failed to gaina broad popular base protestan majority of england against the openly catholic king,...duke of monmouth...
after the battle of...and...the king appointed...to... sedgemoor...monmouth's execution...judge george jefferies to punish the rebels
Soon, however, the 'assizes' or trials conducted by Judge Jefferies, which led to...shocked... brutal execution of over 400 peasants...James' tory supporters out of their unquestioning loyalty to his Stuart person
"Bloodless Revolution" a.k.a. Glorious Revolution (1688)
"Bloodless Revolution" a.k.a. Glorious Revolution (1688) - sees...to overthrow... william of orange and mary invited by parliament and several anglican bishops...her father and establish a constitutional monarchy
mary overthrowing her father happend much more...and seemed to indicate... smoothly than anyone could have foreseen...a degree of divine intervention
is also referred to as “the Bloodless Revolution” due to the ...however...to... lack of fighting in England...it led to extremely brutal conflicts in ireland which was to be a staging ground for james 7/2 ...recapture his throne
The battles of ...still invoke.. Londonderry and the Boyne River ...powerful cultural memories in Ireland today and are part of the justification for continuing conflict.
The Fronde of...refers to a period of... (1648-52)...instability in France at the end of the 30 Years' War
Though often portrayed as a...the fronde ewas more of a... popular revolt in Paris...conspiracy by the noblity against the increasing power of the monarchy under candinals richeliue and mazarin
The end result of the fronde was that Louis XIV actually consolidated even more power to the throne creating the greatest example of Absolutism
The Sun King - this refers to Louis XIV as the dominant power in Western Europe
louis xiv described himself as...and wore a... louis the great...crystal medallion of the sun around his neck so that sunlight would seem to glow from him directly
As the personification of ...louis xiv became the standard by which other powerful monarchs... absolutist rule...measured themselves, as is reflected in palaces which imitate versailles, huge national armies and the luxery of the french royal court
Jacobean dates... is used generally to identifiy (1603-1625)...the reign of james 6/1 of scotland/england
jacobean describes one of the golden ages of british history
during the jacobean age, there was a lot of...marked by the... religious conflict and economic development...king james bible and the foundation of jamestown colony in virgina
during jacobean age, there was growth in the importance of the...and is reflected in the development of... middle class..jacobean style architecture, art and lit - including some of the most famout shakespearian works
oliver cromwell aka...during the..witnessed symbolically... lord protector...english civil war (1642-45)...as much as in fact, the emergence of representative government as an alternative to feudal society (landed hierarchy)
the victory by...led by...and the execution of...helps to provide... parliament..oliver cromwell and the rump...king in 1649...a model for the revolutions in America and france over a century later
the test act of...is a reaction to... 1672...charles II's declaration of indulgence
the test act was motivated by a secret treaty of dover w/ louis xiv
the test act was imposed by...and excluded... parliament..roman catholics from office under the crown
the fear of..during the test act times and the potential threat of...helped leading... catholicism...france...anglican nobles to gain dominance over the cabal
cabal is ..which was the... five man inner council...real power behind the throne of charles II
There were also...regarding the... justified concerns...religious and political intentions of his broth and heir to the throne, james duke of york
philosophes is the term applied to the...especially with regard to.. .main intellecutual contributors to the enlightenment...political and social ideas
the best known philosophe is...but the term can be applied to...including... voltaire...dozens of other philosophers...montesquieu, rousseau, adam smith and david hum
the term philosophe can also be applied to intellectural that we might more narrowly describe as scientists today
social contract of...wwas written by 1762...jean jacque rousseau
social contract reflects the more radical trends of the french enlightenment w/ regard to social theory
rousseau follows...idea that... locke's...man is basically good but is then corrupted by civilization and enlightenement insomuch as he saw contemporary society as being fundamentally unequal and therefor unnatural
economically, rousseau was more concerned with what was...than he was with... good for society...commercial profit (uniform poveryt was better than few having privlelged existence)
radical democracy would serve to...according to rousseau restrain individuals who sought to preserve selfish independence from the majority
englightened absolutism is also described as..and refers to the... enlightened despotism...apparent concessions made to the ideas of the enlightenment philosophes by some of the most powerful monarchs in europe
after appearing to support ideas of...these monarchs actually... respresentative gov and limitation of the power of church and state...consolidated power in their own hands behind the scenes
the monarch of enlightened absolutism include frederick II of prussia, catherine II of russia and joseph II of austrai
jacobite rebellion of...is the term that refers initially to ... 1715...supporters of james 7/2 during the glorious revolution
jacobite evolves to mean the... supporters of the stuart claim to the scottish/british throne in 18th cent
in 1715, james edward or james 8/3 as he styled himself, attemped to lead an invasion of scotland and england in hopes of overthrowing the newly crowned george I
the repression of the...was associated with... jacobite rebellions...anti-catholic sentiments which inspired david hume's critical approach to religion while at the same time deporting a number of hanoverian opponents to the american colonies
the hanoverian oopponents being sent to american colonies is where they would eventuall align with the american revolutionary movement
inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations in...was written by 1776...adam smith
the inquiry...wealth of nations serves as the... codification of modern concepts on capitalism
after witnessing the...smith studied... economic decline of glasgow during the 18th cent...man in the context of economy and nature
smith introduced for the firsr time the idea that humans were merely part of the economic whole and were varialbe cost in production
according to adam smith, what was more natural and efficiant free trade w/ abolition of tariffs and other labor restrictions
the result of smith's believes on whawt was natural/efficient was that with higher productivity and profits, it would be good for society as a whole
the puritan principle commander was...and he created the...that were... oliver cromwell...new model army...light and fast
bec the new model army was light and fast, it empowered the...and they became known as the... common...english commonwealth (round heads)
in the english civil war who fought against who royalists (cavaliers) and parliamentarians (commoners)
for the cavaliers, who was head of both church and state? what about for the parliamentarians? king...the people
who led the parliamentarians oliver cromwell
the parliamentarians experienced...which made cromwell...so he... earlly defeat..mad...recruits more battle-experienced people from the 30 years war etc. to form a new model army
eventually the parliamentarians...and they turn into the... win and come to power...rump parliament
rump parliament decide kings can be...so.. found guilty of crime against his peopple...charles I is beheaded
cromwell then...with the...and becomes the... overthrows rump parliament...new model army...land protector
the mississippi bubble of...involved a lot of...but then... 1720...selling stocks and increasing profits...the french middle class collapses along with the economy
leviathan was written by...and it rigorously argues that..are best achieved by the establishment of a hobbes..civil peace and social unity...commonwealth through social contract
the ideal commonwealth, according to hobbes is controlled by a...and... sovereign power responsible for protecting the security of the commonwealth ...granted absolute authority to ensure the common defense
the leviathan's body is made of...and with the...as the head the bodies of the citizens...the sovereign
louis xvi calls back the...which hadn't met for...in order to... estates general..170 years...reform the taxation system
the estates general is made of...that are the... three estates...clergy, nobility and merchants
the third estate is made of the merchants, professionals, doctors, lawyers, etc
the third estateate quickly got outvoted by the nobility and clergy so the king doubled the third estate's vote but the king got to make the tie breaker
the third estate got...which led to the... locked out ofthe royal palace...tennis court oath
the thid estate became the national assembly
the tennis court oath was used to...and they... unite the national assembly...swore to write a new constitution
the tennis court oath marks the beginning of the french revolution
the third estate/national assembly decides they need weapons to fight back so they raid the bastille
the storming of the bastille happened on july 14th 1789
the bastille was not supposed to be bloody but it was
the sans-culottes were the ones who did not wear fancy clothes
The treaty of utrecht was between Louis XIV of France and Philip V of Spain on the one hand, and representatives of Anne, Queen of Great Britain, the Duke of Savoy, the King of Portugal and the United Provinces on the other
The treaty of utrecht registered the defeat of French ambitions expressed in the wars of Louis XIV and preserved the European system based on the balance of power.[1]
the emigres were the..who.. counter revolutionaries...fled paris
who were the eimigres priests, monks, nobility
The short-lived French Constitution of 1791 was the first written constitution in France, created after the collapse of the Absolute Monarchy
One of the basic precepts of the const of 1791 was adopting ...following the steps of the constitutionality and establishing popular sovereignty...United States of America
the september massacres occurred after the mob failed to...so they...and around how many people were killed lynch the royal fam of louis xvi...raid the prison to find emigres to kill...1200
supporters of using fear as a tactic to conform include george danton and maximillian robespierre
george danton was head of the...and led the... committee of public safety...reign of terror
robespierre was part of the...which was the image of...and he did a lot of... paris commune...french revolution...killing
The Committee of Public Safety was created by the national french convention
The Committee of Public Safetyassumed its role of .. protecting the newly established republic against foreign attacks and internal rebellion
when...was executed...during..it lead to the... robespierre...thermidor l'an II...thermidorian reaction
the thermidorian reaction begins the...and is when the...and also leads of the...get... third stage of french revolution...ocmmittee of public safety is dishanded...paris commune...arrested/executed
the directory is a...that is the... five man committee...executive office instead of the king
the directy established a...where there was a... bicameral legislature...council of elders (upper house) and council of 500
in the declaration of....who tries to restore... verona...louis xviii...the old regime and punish the revolutionaries
the declaration of verona leads to the directory
emmanuel joseph sieyes was known as the...who was a... abbe d'sieyes...clergyman and a politician of the third estate
abbe d'sieyes wanted moderation/equality for all citizens
gracchus babeauf - think of gracchus brothers
gracchus was involved in the...and he wanted to... conspiracy of equals (paris commune)..redistribute land from first/second estates
gracchus was executedin 1795 for treason
during the...napolean bonaparte causes... seige of toulon...british to retreat so he is seen as ahero
napolean becomes a jacobin but he wasn't part of the terror
napolean fires the...which restores... whift of grapeshot...order in paris and kills 400
in the election of 1747, all...and the nobility... males could vote (first attempt at republic election)...win majority and want to bring back monarchy
the election of 1747 gets..and leads to t he... cancelled by the directory...coup d'etat of fruetidor
the coup d'etat of freutidorwas a..led by... military overtake of government..general angereau
after the coup d'etat of freutidor...is given command of forces to... napolean..invade britain
the xyz affair was when the...so the us sends... us ships were being held by france for trading with britain also...an ambassador to go to france to negotiate and the directory demands a bribe from the us
in the start of the fourth stage of the french revolution, the...occurred where... coup d'etat of 18 brumaire...napolean invades directory and pushes them out
after the coup d'etat,napolean is known as the hero of the republic
after the coup d'etat, the constitution...leads to the... l'an viii..the consolate (3 consuls)
napolean is the premier consul
the..approve of the constitution l'an viii plebicites
with the establishment of the constition of...napolean declares... 1804../himself the emporer
the treaty of tilsit was the...and ends with... high point of napoleans career...prussia joined confederation of the rhine and russia joins the continental system
members of the continental system can't trade with britain
the tennis court oath leads to the formation of the..and eventually the... national constituent assembly...the constitution of 1791
the storming of the bastille is commemorated as the french national day
sans cullottes describes that part of...which wore more... french urban society...practical work clothes and not the fashionable short trousers or cullottes
sans cullottes were the...who made up the core of the group which becomes the... journeymen and apprentices...paris mob and the paris commune later in french revolution
the september massacres by the members of..such as the...helped to increase the poewr of the...and undermine the... radical factions...jacobins and girondists....national convention...legislative assembly
the beginning of the reign of terror is marked by the trial and execution of louis xvi
concordat of 1801 is when the....can be...and the...are.. catholics...priests again...clergy..employees of state
clergy must take an oath to the state
napolean comes up with the...and basically says... constitution of 1804...the republic shall be entrusted to an emporer
napolean after he creates the constitution of 1804, he invades..where an... baden..army is building
when napolean invades baden, ...gets captured and... duke of enghein (member of the bourbon family)...excecuted
france was...and eruope was... happy about napolean killling enghein...forms an alliance against napolean
third coalition was...vs.. britain, austria and german states...napolean
thid coalition involved the...also known as... battle of trafolgan...crossing of the t
Created by: handrzej