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World Civ.

Founders of the Italian city-state this wealthy family supported and hired many of the artists and thinkers during the Renaissance. Medici family
Daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. Known as Good Queen Bess, she made England a world power during her 45-year reign; one of the most powerful women rulers in history. Queen during England's defeat of the Spanish Armada. Queen Elizabeth I
Italian-born Spanish explorer who attempted to find a route to the Indies, however, located the Americas. Christopher Columbus
What was the effect of the invention of the printing press? The invention of the printing press allowed for more books to be made which assisted in making people more knowledgable. Also printed the Bible in common languages so all could read.
One of the most devastating diseases the world has ever seen. It killed 60% of the European population. The Black Plague(Death)
Italian astronomer, physicist and mathematician. Perfected the telescope and used it to prove Nicolaus Copernicus' theory that the Earth revolves around the sun. Galileo Galilei
Considered one of the smartest people of the Renaussance Leonardo Da Vinci is sometimes known as this... if someone calls you this today they are giving you a compliment. Renaissance Man
The leader of the Catholic Church. Pope
Polish scientist who formed the theory that the Earth revolved around the sun. Nicolaus Copernicus
To where did many rural people migrate in the Renaissance? Why? To the city to find work.
Resulted in the unification of France and the absence of nobles from the manors... new weapons such as the longbow and the cannon were introduced and Joan of Arc became famous. 100 Years War
Queen Elizabeth's father. Led the reformation of the Church of England bringing the Protestant Reformation to England. Formed the Anglican Church. Henry VIII
A Portuguese noble who was the first European to sail around Africa to India. Vasco Da Gama
What are some other countries where the Renaissance took hold? Northern Europe, Portugal, Spain, England, France, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Croatia, Poland, and Russia
Italian painter, sculptor, poet, and architect. He painted the Sistine Chapel and carved the Pieta. Michelangelo
Portuguese navigator who sailed around the tip of Africa and into the Indian Ocean. Bartolomeu Dias
Why did Martin Luther protest against the Catholic Church? The Catholic Church had been selling indulgences and Martin Luther disagreed with them.
English playwright and poet. Famous for "Romeo and Juliet". Considered one of the greatest writers of all time. William Shakespeare
What foods or goods came from the New World to the Old World? Avocados, Corn, Tomatoes, Potatoes, and Tobacco.
A person seeking religious purity and who wanted to rid the Church of England of all Catholic practices. It is a very strict Protestant religion. A Puritan
The only Christian church before the Reformation. A religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ with headquarters in Rome, Italy; headed by the Pope. The Catholic Church
Pardons for sins that were sold by the Catholic Church. Indulgences
A religious movement that began in Europe in the 1500's as an attempt to reform the Catholic Church. This resulted in the founding of Protestantism. The Reformation
The belief that the sun is the center of the Universe. The Heliocentric Theory
A machine that used "moveable type" to create books, bibles, etc. Was invented by Johann Gutenberg. The Printing Press
A system of observing and experimenting to determine whether an idea should be accepted as true. The Scientific Method
Organizations that craft-people of the Renaissance joined. Helped get better training, wages and rights. Guilds
A fleet of Spanish warships under Phillip II were set to attack England but were driven away by the faster English ships and then destroyed in a storm while retreating around the northern tip of Scotland. After this, England was a dominant world power. Spanish Armada
Where did the Renaissance begin? Italy
British physicist and mathematician who explained the theory of gravity and used the Scientific Method. Isaac Newton
Spanish adventurers who came to the Americas in search of gold. Conquistadors
Food and goods that were exchanged between the "Old" and "New World" by the explorers. The Columbian Exchange
The way a country produces and uses goods, services, and money. Economics
What was Spain's role in exploration? They discovered the New World.
Land "found" by the explorers. North and South America. The New World
German monk who protested against the church and was convicted of heresy. His ideas lead to the Protestant Reformation. Martin Luther
What was Portugal's role in exploration? Created a sea route to the East and founded a school of navigation.
He set up the first Protestant church in Geneva, Switzerland. He also authored many books that spread his ideas all over Europe. These ideas included that there is nothing in the past, present, or future that God doesn't already know. John Calvin
Unified Spain and financially supported Columbus' voyages. King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella
A treaty between Spain and Portugal; a line running straight up the Atlantic Ocean and through Brazil and between Canada and Newfoudland gave lands east of the line to Portugal and lands to the west of the line to Spain. Treaty of Tordesillas
He helped bring about the Reign of Terro where thousands were killed by the Guillotine. He was beheaded. Maximilien de Robespierre
Queen of France. Lavish lifestyle made her unpopular and was blamed for the debt of France. Guillotined. Marie Antoinette
The revolution that began in 1789, overthrew the absolute monarchy of Louis XVI along with the system of aristocratic priveleges, and ended with Napoleon's overthrow of the Directory and seizure of power in 1799. The French Revolution
General during the American Revolution which defeated a stronger British army. Became the 1st President of the United States. George Washington
A period of violence or rule by fear during the French Revolution. During two years 40,000 French men and women were executed by the guillotine. Reign of Terror
An attempt to overthrow or change the government. Revolt
Originally members of a group of English Protestants seeking "purity"- further reforms from the Roman Catholic Church-during the Protestant Reformation, though many later sought seperation from the Protestant church. Puritans
Type of government where the ruler's power is limited by written law. Constitutional Monarchy
A monarchy where the ruler has all power and believes that this power comes from god. Therefore the monarch is ONLY accountable to God and not to their subjects. Divine Right Monarchy
Form of government where all people get to vote on all issues. "Rule by the people." Democracy
Officials who are elected by the people to make decisions for the people. Representatives
Legislating body(used in Great Britian). Parliament
A government ruled by a leader with unlimited authority. Autocracy
Believed in Divine Right and was Elizabeth I's cousin-Ruler of both England and Scotland. James I
Hundreds of hungry people in Paris stormed a medieval fort and prison to search for gunpowder on July 14, 1789, signaling the start of the French Revolution. The Bastille
King of France whose efforts to raise taxes led to the Revolution. Weak king who didn't stop the revolt that became the French Revolution. Guillotined by revolutionaries. Louis XVI
System where colonies can only buy and sell goods with their mother country. Colonies serve as sources for raw materials and as a market for finished goods. Mercantilism
French commander. Took over after the French Revolution and kept many of the reforms. One of the greatest military commanders of all time. Napoleon Bonaparte
Rulers at the end of the Glorious Revolution. Forced James II into exile. Joint rulers of England. They adopted a constitutional monarchy. William and Mary
Written laws used to govern a country. Constitution
What type of government did England have at the end of the English Civil War. Autocracy
Argentine general who helped lead South America to freedom from Spanish rule, during the Latin American Revolution. Jose de san Martin
English writer and philosopher. He believed that people were born with certain natural(God Given) rights, such as "life, liberty, and property." His ideas were a great influence on the leaders of the American Revolution. John Locke
English philosopher. Wrote the book Leviathan during the English Revolution. Believed that only one person should have absolute power(monarchy). Thomas Hobbes
Grandfather of Louis XVI, he built the Palace at Versailles. Known as the Sun King. Louis XIV
Member of the English Parliament. Led his forces to victory against King Charles I's army. Became dictator of England. The country was troubled and he finally did away with Parliament and governed as a military dictator for the Puritan minority. Oliver Cromwell
The English colonists in America became angry over English policies of mercantilism and taxation which led to revolutioon and the forming of a new country. American Revolution
The English change in monarchs from James II to William and Mary took place without a shot being fired, creating a constitutional monarchy, and came to be called the "the Glorious Revolution." Also known as this. Bloodless Revolution
Enlightenment philosopher and writer of the Declaration of Independence. Became known as the "voice" of the American Revolution. Thomas Jefferson
Why do people revolt? Because they don't like their government and want to change it.
Sparked by the French Revolution and the revolution in Haiti, many Latin American countries(Spanish speaking countries in South America) sought to gain freedom from Spanish control. Latin-American Revolution
The belief that humans are important. New thought of the Renaissance. Humanism
A class between the rich land owners and the poor serfs(this class grew out of the cities of the Renaissance). This group had more social staus than peasants, but less than nobles. Middle Class
The time from about 1400 to 1600 in which Europeans entered an age of thought, learning, art, and science; a French word meaning "rebirth." Renaissance
System of government in the Middle Ages used to provide protection and security. Included clergy, nobility, and peasantry. Fuedalism
A King or Queen. Monarch
A philosopher who believed in the Freedom of Religion and Speech- helped inspire the American and French Revolutions. Voltaire
Why did Henry VIII leave the Catholic Church? The pope wouldn't let him get a divorce.
What are the countries created as a result of the Latin American Revolution? Bolivia
Helped win independence from Spain for Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. Simon Bolivar
Founder of a school of navigation, he made Portugal a world sea power. Prince Henry the Navigator
Italian painter, sculptor, architect, engineer, and scientist. He is most famous for The Last Supper and the Mona Lisa. Leonardo Da Vinci
Portuguese navigator who sailed through what is now known as the Strait of Magellan. One os his ships completed a circumnavigation of the globe. Ferdinand Magellan
German who brought the idea of movable type to Europe. He printed Europe's first book, a 1,200 page Bible. Johann Gutenberg
Enlightenment thinker. Believe that individual freedom was more than state governments. Helped to inspire the French Revolution. Does not believe people have the right to private property. Jean Jacque Rousseau
Name some of the "Humanist" thinkers. Martin Luther, John Locke, Jean Jaque Rousseau
Form of government where religious leaders also rule the people and is Head of State.. Theocracy
A movement(based on humanism) focused on ways to improve society and to create a government that would protect the rights of the people. Enlightenment
Pope who wanted to rebuild St. Peter's Church in Rome; To get the money for this work, he began to sell indulgences for forgiveness for sins people might commit in the future. Johann Tetzel
What were the effects of trade in the Renaissance? It brought new things to the countries like food but it also brought disease that killed many people.
Name of the churches that were formed as a result of protests against the Catholic Church. The Anglican Church, Protestant Church, and Puritan Church.
Created by: Mr. Grinch