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Russia History Q.2

Standardize Test Questions

Russia's historical roots go back to what years? 600s
In the 600s who settled along the waterways in the Northern European Plain? Slav farmers, hunters, and fishers
During the 800s who settled along the Slavs living near the Dneiper and Volga Rivers? Scandinavian warriors called Varangians
The Slavs organized Kievan Rus, What is it? A loose union of city states
What weakened Kievan Rus? Fighting
In Early 1200s who invaded Kievan Rus and the territories from their foothold Central Asia? Mongols
Many Slavs fled the Mongols invasions so where did they settle? Along the Moskva River
One of the settlements grew into what city? Moscow
What was Muscovy and what was it linked by? What did the surroundings do? Center territory of Moscow linked by rivers to major trade routes and it's surrounding was good for farming and fur trapping
Muscovy's Prince Ivan III did what? Brought many Slav territories under it's control, thus earning the nickname The Great
Ivan's expanded land came to be known as what? Russia
What did Ivan build in Moscow? Kremlin and filled the cities with churches and palaces
What is Kremlin back then and now? A fortress then an executive headquarters
1547 Ivan IV became what? The first crowned Czar
What did Ivan IV do? Expanded realm's borders into non Slav Territories thus earning the nickname The Terrible
What bad things happened after Ivan IV's reign? Russia faced foreign invasion, economic decline, and social upheavel
What came into power in 1613 Romanov dynasty
What happened to peasants in 1650? Many became serfs
What's a Serf? Enslaved workforce bound to the land and under the control of nobility
What happened to western Europe as Russia was struggling? It became industrialized
In late 1600s, Czar Peter I did what to Russia? Modernize Russia
What good things did Peter I do? Enlarged Russia's territory, built a strong military, and developed trade with western Europe
How did Peter I gain seaports? Gained land along the Baltic Sea from Sweden
What is St. Petersburg and it gave Russia what? A capital carved out of the wilderness along the Gulf of Finland, and gave Russia a window to the West
St. Petersburg became a major what? Port since others were icebound
During the 1700s Empress Catherine did what? Continued to expand Russia's empire and gained a warm-water port on the Black Sea
How did a gap form between the nobility and the serfs? Russian nobility was adopting western European ways
1891, what did Czar Alexander III do? Expanded Russia into Siberia with the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railroad
When the railroad was completed what did it open up? Russia's interior to settlement
Czar Alexander II's limited reforms such as freeing slaves in 1861 did what? Made many former serfs move to the cities because of no education
What did former serfs go through? Poor conditions and meager wages of factory work
New Russian people had to go through what? Russification
What is Russification? Policy which encouraged people to speak Russian and follow Christianity
What happens when you refuse Russification? Persecution
What lead to socialism in Russia? Frustration and discontent
What is socialism? A belief that calls for greater economic equality in society
What did German philosopher Karl Marx do? Advocate public ownership of all land and a classless society with an equal sharing of wealth
What broke out in the early 1900s? Strikes and demonstrations
In 1917, the hardships of WWI brought what? What did the people demand? Larger numbers of workers and now soldiers into the streets demanding bread and freedom
Czar Nicholas II abdictate his throne in 1917 bringing czarist rule to a what? End
What did the murder of the Royal family cause? The emergence of communism
The weak government in 1917 made it easy for what? Bolsheviks to take over
What are the Bolsheviks? A revolutionary group led by Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov
What is communism? A philosophy based on Karl Marx's idea that called for the violent overthrow of the government and thecreation of a society led by workers
By promising peace, land and bread the Bolsheviks did what? Withdraw Russia from WWI, surrendering much land to Germany
The Bolsheviks used their political control to control what? Industry, direct food distribution, and establish an eight hour work day
Who was fighting in the Civil War? The Red Army and the White Army
The Bolsheviks won the war in 1922 and established what? Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or the Soviet Union
The Soviets gradually regained what areas? Ukraine, Belarus, and large parts of the Caucasus region and Central Asia
What happened after Lenin's death in 1924? Joseph Stalin became the leader of the Communist Party
What did Stalin do to Russia? Took control of farms and factories and turned the USSR into an industrial giant
What did Stalin do to those who disagreed with him? Eliminated
What happened in 1939 with the Soviet Union giving control of countries? The Nazi Soviet Nonaggression Pact
What happens in 1941 drawing Russia into WWII? Germany attacks the Soviet Union
In 1945 with Germany defeated who did the USSR influence? Eastern and southeastern Europe
The USSR controlled what by war's end? Eastern Europe
By 1949 most countries became what? Satellites
What are satellites? Countries controlled by the Soviet Union
In 1961 Soviet astronaut Yury Gagarin did what? Orbit the Earth
How long did the United States and the Soviet Union engage in the Cold War? Four decades
What was the Cold War? The struggle between two competing systems for world influence and power
What did they fight about in the Cold War? Communist and capitalist
They built nuclear weapons for what reason? Propaganda, threat of force, aid to developing countries
What lead to the break up of the Soviet Union in 1991? The weakening economy, along with great discrepancies between workers' wages and the privileges their leaders enjoyed
In 1985 Mikhail Gorbachev a reform-minded official assumed what? Power in the Soviet Union
What did Mikhail institute? Perestroika the policy of economic restructuring and glasnost the greater policy of political openness
What did the satellites do in 1989? Overthrow their Communist leaders
How many new countries became part of the CIS out of 15? 12
Who was elected the first president of the Russian Republic? Boris Yeltsin
Russia switched to what economy causing what to happen? Market economy causing outdated factories to close and restructuring agriculture
What did ethnic groups in the 1990s demand greater of? Self rule
What threatened the stability of Russia? Separatist movements and ethnic conflict
Who inherited the demand problem in the 1990s? Vladimir Putin
How did Putin stabilize the economy? Instituting reforms in labor, banking, and private property and getting involved with NATO
In 2004 reelections Putin seems to be stepping away from what? Democracy
Dmitry Medvedev put Putin as _____ ________ Allowing him to be heavily involved in the Russian government? Prime Minister
Created by: Skyferris