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A&P overview


Anatomical position Standing erect, toes pointed forward, palms forward
Superior Above
Inferior Below
Anterior Toward front
Posterior Toward back
Medial Toward midline
Lateral Away midline
Proximal Closer to the point of orgin
Distal farther from the point of orgin
Ventral Toward front
dorsal Toward back
Superficial Closer surface
Deep farther surface
Antebrachial forearm
Antecubital bend of the elbow
Axillary armpit
Brachial arm
Buccal cheek
Cervical neck
Crural leg
Deltiod shoulder
Digital fingers and toes
Femoral thigh
frontal forehead
Inguinal groin
Nasal nose
Oral mouth
Orbital eye
Patella knee cap
Thoracic chest
Umbilical navel
Genu knee
Cephalic head
Gluteal buttocks
Lumber lower back
Occipital base of the skull
Olecranon elbow
Popliteal behind the knee
Sural calf of the leg
Planter sole of the foot
Gastric stomach
Hepatic liver
Renal kidney
Cardiac heart
Pulmonary lungs
Volar palm of the hand
Caudaul toward the tail
Frontal plane divide front to back
Sagittal plane side to side
Mid-sagittal plane side to side, equal parts
Transverse plane divides top to bottom
RUQ right upper quadrant
RLQ right lower quadrant
LUQ left upper quadrant
LLQ left lower quadrant
Dorsal cavity includes cranial & spinal Note: no dividing point
Ventral cavity includes thoracic, abdominal, pelvic
Dividing point for ventral cavity diaphragm
# of quadrants in the abdominal area 4
# of regions the abdominal area 9
Atrophy = wasting away
Hypertrophy = increase in tissue size
Element = substances that cannot ne broken down further
anion negative
cell respiration break down of food
intracellular fluid fluid inside the cell
Extracellular fluid fluid inside the cell
Electrolytes = any various ions; sodium, potassium, chloride
Major solvent in the body? water
Major source of energy providing food to the body cells? carbohydrates
Below 7 pH is acidic
Above 7 pH is alkaline (base)
Building blocks of proteins? amino acids
DNA = bluepring
RNA = messenger and decoder
Integumentary system = skin, hair, nails
Integumentary system function? water proofs, protects and is damaged by sunburn
Skeletal system function? supports and provides frame work to assist skeletal muscles with movement
Nervous system does what? uses impulses and is fast acting
Endocrine system does what? uses regulatory substances called hormones and is slow acting
Cardiovascular system does what? delivers oxygen and nutrients to the cells
Lymphatic system does what? protects and destroys bacteria
Respiratory system does what? removes carbon dioxide from the blood
Digestive system does what? breaks down food
Urinary system does what? eliminates excess water
Reproductive system does what? provides for conception and child bearing
Anatomy= study of the structure of the body
Physiology= study of the function of the body
Organization of the body= atoms=molecules=cells=tissues=organs= organ systems=body
Smallest unit is atoms
Smallest living unit is cells
Main type of tissue Epithelial= cover or line body surfaces
Main type of tissue Muscle= specialized in contraction
Main type of tissue Nerve= specialized to generate and transmit electrochemical impulses
Main type of tissue Connective= connect and support
What systems have the main responsibility of ensuring homeostasis of the internal environment? Endocrine system & Nervous system
Metabolism= sum total of all of the reactions in the body
Anabolism does what? builds up, uses energy
Catabolism does what? breaks down, supplies energy
Anabolism + Catabolism = Metabolism
Survival needs? Nutrients, Oxygen, Water(60-80%of body weight),temperature 98.6/37, atmospheric pressure
Homeostatic and physiologic control mechanisms are? receptor, control center, effector Note:must know in order
Most homeostatic control mechanisms which feedback system? Negative
Created by: jhowe2323