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Medical Terms

Introduction to Medical Terminology - Chapter 1

QuestionAnswer
abdominocentesis Surgical puncture of the abdomen by a needle to withdraw fluid; abdominal paracentesis.
acronym A contrived reduction of nouns
acute Present or experienced to a severe or intense degree.
angiography Examination by X-ray of blood or lymph vessels, carried out after introduction of a radiopaque substance.
appendectomy A surgical operation to remove the appendix.
arteriosclerosis The thickening and hardening of the walls of the arteries, occurring typically in old age.
arthraligia Pain in a joint.
colostomy the construction of an artificial opening from the colon through the abdominal wall, thus bypassing a diseased portion of the lower intestine and permitting the passage of intestinal contents.
cyanosis A bluish discoloration of the skin.
dermatologist A doctor who specializes in the physiology and pathology of the skin.
diagnosis The identification of the nature of an illness or other problem by examination of the symptoms.
diarrhea A condition in which feces are discharged from the bowels frequently and in a liquid form.
edema A condition characterized by an excess of watery fluid collecting in the cavities or tissues of the body.
endarterial of or relating to the intima of an artery.
eponym the person for whom something (as a disease) is or is believed to be named
erythrocyte A red blood cell that (in humans) is typically a biconcave disk without a nucleus.
fissure A long, narrow opening or line of breakage made by cracking or splitting.
fistula An abnormal or surgically made passage between a hollow or tubular organ and the body surface, or between two hollow or tubular organs.
gastralgia stomachache: an ache localized in the stomach or abdominal region.
gastritis Inflammation of the lining of the stomach.
gastroenteritis Inflammation of the stomach and intestines, from bacterial toxins or viral infection.
gastrosis disease of the stomach
hemorrhage An escape of blood from a ruptured blood vessel.
hepatomegaly abnormal enlargement of the liver.
hypertension Abnormally high blood pressure.
hypotension Abnormally low blood pressure.
infection invasion and multiplication of microorganisms in body tissues
inflammation a protective tissue response to injury or destruction of tissues, which serves to destroy, dilute, or wall off both the injurious agent and the injured tissues.
interstitial Relating to or situated in the small, narrow spaces between tissues or parts of an organ.
intramuscular pertaining to the interior of muscle tissue.
laceration A jagged wound or cut.
lesion Any visible, local abnormality of the tissues of the skin, such as a wound, sore, rash, or boil.
mycosis A fungal infection in or on a part of the body.
myelopathy any functional disturbance and/or pathological change in the spinal cord
myopathy any disease of muscle
myorrhexis rupture of a muscle.
natal pertaining to birth.
neonatology the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the newborn.
neuritis Inflammation of a nerve.
otorhinolaryngology the branch of medicine dealing with the ear, nose, and throat.
palpation the act of feeling with the hand; the application of the fingers with light pressure to the surface of the body for the purpose of determining the condition of the parts beneath in physical diagnosis.
palpitation a subjective sensation of an unduly rapid or irregular heartbeat.
pathology the branch of medicine dealing with the essential nature of disease, especially changes in body tissues and organs that cause or are caused by disease.
phalanges the bones of the fingers and toes
poliomyelitis an acute viral disease usually caused by a poliovirus and marked clinically by fever, sore throat, headache, vomiting, and often stiffness of the neck and back
prognosis a forecast of the probable course and outcome of a disorder
prostate a gland surrounding the bladder neck and urethra in the male; it contributes a secretion to the semen
pyoderma any purulent skin disease.
pyrosis a burning sensation in the esophagus, or below the sternum in the region of the heart, one of the common symptoms of indigestion
remission diminution or abatement of the symptoms of a disease; the period during which such diminution occurs.
sign an indication of the existence of something; any objective evidence of a disease, i.e., such evidence as is perceptible to the examining physician, as opposed to the subjective sensations (symptoms) of the patient.
supination one of the kinds of rotation allowed by certain skeletal joints, such as the elbow and the wrist joints, which permit the palm of the hand to turn up.
suppuration The formation or discharge of pus. Also called pyesis, pyopoiesis, pyosis.
supracostal Located above the ribs.
symptom any subjective evidence of disease or of a patient's condition, i.e., such evidence as perceived by the patient; a change in a patient's condition indicative of some bodily or mental state.
syndrome a set of symptoms occurring together; the sum of signs of any morbid state; a symptom complex.
tonsillitis Tonsillitis is an infection and swelling of the tonsils, which are oval-shaped masses of lymph gland tissue located on both sides of the back of the throat.
trauma psychological or emotional damage.
triage the sorting out of casualties of war or other disaster to determine priority of need and proper place of treatment.
viral pertaining to or caused by a virus.
Created by: 302449
 

 



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