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HAP Final Exam

What are the structures of the endocrine system? Cells, tissue, and organs that secrete hormone into body fluids.
What is the function of the endocrine system? Communicate with cells using chemicals (hormones) and regulate metabolic processes.
What is "negative feedback" in reference to hormone secretions? Controls hormonal releases, when the concentration is too high it inhibits the glands from secreting hormones until it returns to normal.
What glands secrete hormones? Anterior pituitary gland, posterior pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, adrenal gland, pancreas, and the pineal gland.
What hormones does the anterior pituitary gland secrete? Growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PL), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH).
What hormones does the posterior pituitary gland secrete? Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin.
What hormones does the thyroid gland secrete? Thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), and calcitonin.
What hormone does the parathyroid gland secrete and what is its function? Parathyroid hormone (PTH); Increase blood calcium ion concentration and decrease phosphate ion concentration, influences kidneys to conserve calcium.
What hormones does the adrenal glands secrete and what are their functions? Epinephrine/norepinephrine: stress response for "fight or flight", aldosterone: causes kidneys to conserve sodium ions/water and excrete potassium ions, cortisol: influences metabolism of glucose/protein/fat, and sex hormones.
What hormones does the pancreas secrete and what are their functions? Glucagon: increase blood levels of glucose and insulin: decrease blood levels of glucose.
What hormone does the pineal gland secrete and what is its function? Melatonin: regulates circadian rhythms of the body.
What hormone stimulates body cells to grow and reproduce? Growth Hormone (GH).
WHat hormone promotes milk production? Prolactin (PL).
What hormone controls the secretions of hormones from the thyroid gland? Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH).
What hormone controls the secretions of hormones from the adrenal cortex? Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).
Which two hormones are gonadotropins? Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).
What hormone causes the kidneys to conserve water? Antidiuretic hormone (ADH).
What hormone causes muscle contractions in the uterine walls and forces milk into ducts from the milk glands? Oxytocin.
What two hormones increase the rate that cells release energy from carbohydrates, enhance protein synthesis, and stimulate the breakdown and mobilization of lipids? Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3).
What does calcitonin do? Lower the blood levels of calcium and phosphate ions when they are too high, increase the rate the calcium is store in bones and excreted in urine.
How does stress affect your health? Threatens homeostasis.
What is diabetes and what are the symptoms? A deficiency of insulin; extreme amount of urine.
What is hypothyroidism and what are some of the symptoms? Too little hormone secretions; low metabolism, temperature sensitive, sluggish, poor appetite, mental dullness.
What are the components of blood? 45% cell and 55% plasma.
Where is blood produced and what controls its production? Yolk sac, liver, spleen, and bone marrow; negative feedback system.
How are gases transported in blood? It is surrounded by proteins molecules for transportation through the bloodstream as lipoproteins.
What is a thrombus? A clot that forms abnormally in a vessel.
What is an embolus? A close that dislodges.
What is congestive heart failure? Inability of the left ventricle to pump adequate blood to cells.
What are palpitations? A heartbeat that is unusually rapid, strong, or irregular.
What is phlebitis? The inflammation of a vein, usually in the lower limbs.
What is phlebotomy? The incision or puncture of a vein to withdraw blood.
What is the function of the lymphatic system? Help defend against disease.
What is lymph? Tissue fluid.
How is lymph formed? Rising osmotic pressure in tissues interferes with the return of fluid to the blood, increasing interstitial pressure forces some of the fluid into lymphatic capillaries , turning into lymph fluid.
What is innate immunity? Species resistance, mechanical and chemical barriers, fever and inflammation, phagocytosis.
What is adaptive immunity? Antigens, lymphocytes, and antibodies.
What is active immunity? Vaccines (artificially) and exposure to the antigen itself, then produce antibodies to the antigen (naturally).
What is passive immunity? The injection of antibodies containing antibodies (artificially) and mother to fetus (naturally).
What is a vaccine? Substance that contains antigens used to stimulate an immune response.
What is an allergen? A foreign substance capable of stimulating an allergic reaction.
What is autoimmunity? Immune system manufactures antibodies against some of its own antigens.
What organs make up the alimentary canal? Oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anal canal.
What is peristalsis? A propelling, wavelike motion.
What is the function of the mouth? To receive food and begin mechanical digestion.
What is the purpose of the pharynx and esophagus? A passageway for food.
What is the function of the stomach? Receive and mix food with digestive juices, propels food to the small intestine.
What is the function of the pancreas? Produce pancreatic juice that aids in digestion.
What is the function of the liver? metabolic activities, store vitamins A/D/B12, iron and blood, and secrete bile.
What is the function of the small intestine? Receive secretion from the pancreas and liver, complete digestion of the nutrients in chyme, absorb products of digestion, transports residues to the large intestine.
What is the function of the large intestine? Absorb water and electrolytes, form and store feces.
What organs make up the respiratory system? Nose, nasal cavity, sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchial tree, and lungs.
What is hyperventilation and effect does it have on blood gas levels? Prolonged, rapid, and deep breathing; lowers the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood.
What is the organ where gas exchange actually occurs? Alveoli.
What molecules carry O2 and Co2? (oxy)Hemoglobin; Carbaminohemoglobins or bicarbonate ions.
What is apnea? Temporary cessation of breathing.
What is bronchitis? The inflammation of the bronchial ling.
What is dyspnea? Difficulty breathing.
What is hypoxia? The diminished availability of oxygen in tissues.
What is pleurisy? The inflammation of the pleural membranes.
What is pneumothorax? The entrance of air into the space between pleural membranes, followed by a lung collapse.
What is tracheotomy? An incision in the trachea for exploration or for removal of a foreign object.
What are the urinary system organs? 2 kidneys, 2 ureters, a urinary bladder, and a urethra.
What is the function of kidneys? Filter blood.
What is the function of a urethra? To convey waste substances to the outside.
Where in the kidney is urine formed? Renal tubules.
What 3 processes produce urine? Glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, and tubular secretion.
What is an antigen? Foreign material within the body.
What is an antibody? Fights antigens.
What is the function of a ureter? Transport urine from the kidneys.
What is the function of the urinary bladder? Collect urine from the ureters and serves as a urine reservoir.
How are various STDs transmitted? Bacterial infections, viral infections, parasitic disease, exchange of skin to skin contact or bodily fluids.
Created by: helloCatrina