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examoneresp

QuestionAnswer
RSV respiratory syncytial virus
Infants <3 months have better immune system (from mom), less infections, but are more susceptible to pertussis
Infection rate increases @ 3-6 months b/c maternal ab disappear
Fever may be absent in newborns-may rach 103-105 even w/mild infection s/s of resp infection
Initial evidence of illness poor feeding
Small passages get blocked easily by swelling and exudate nasal blockage
a condition in which the patient shows signs of meningitis but examination reveals no pathologic changes in the meninges. The condition is associated with cases of pneumonia in small children. meningismus
Sysmptoms w/no infection, occurs w/abrupt onset of fever w/ HA, pain & stiffness in the back & neck, subsides as fever goes down meningimus
BP decreases w/inspiration and Increases w/exhale pulsus paradoxus associated w/wheezing or grunting
A good therapeutic measure for relief of resp discomfort-the moisture soothes inflamed membranes hydration is key
-no asa c of rye syndrome-ns drops-chicken soup-fluids-abx don’t work if it’s a virus nasopharyngitis/common cold
-GABHS-strep throat-@risk for rheumatic fever (RF)->inflammatory disease of heart, joints & CNS & AGN (acute glomerulonephritis) Pharyngitis & Tonsillitis
Strept throat with a rash scarlet fever
Caused by Epstein Barr virus, no abx its viral, treat symptomatically, but saline gargles, rest, cough drops * no sports-prevent mono
Infection of the middle ear, eustachian tube gets blocked, fluid builds and may become infected otitis media
It is shorter, wider, straight and positioned horizontally allowing microorganisms and nasaophyrangeal secretions into middle ear kids eustachian tube
Breast feeding decreases risk for diabetes b/c milk has macrophages and a change when baby or mom is sick
Crying, pulling @ ear, fever,irritability,vomiting,diarrhea,cold s/s,inattentive to voice Otitis Media E
Wath and wait if non=severe, oral amoxicillin in increased dose when needed: Otitis Media
Pressure equalizing tubes to allow drainage to min risk of hearing loss and speech prob tympanostony
Ear plugs when swimming and bathing pt teach pe tubes
Best tx is prevention->immunization droplet precautions whooping cough/pertussis
Can affect larynx,trachea, and bronchi, described according to anatomic area(ex:epiglottis or supraglotitis)laryngitis,laringotracheobronchitis (ltb) and tracheitis croup
Take kid out at night or stand by cool shower tx for croup
Cool mist blow – not tent or mask tx for croup
Barking cough with inspiratory wheezing and some resp distress croup
Droplet precautions, prevention with immunizations pertussis whooping cough
Serious obstructive inflammatoru process ->usually 2-8yrs, H influenza acute epiglottis or acute supraglottitis
Fever,sits up n forward, chin thrust out acute epiglottis or acute supraglottitis
Drooling,dysphagia,dysphonia,distressed inspiratory effort acute epiglottis or acute supraglottitis
acute epiglottis or acute supraglottitis four D’s Drooling,dysphagia,dysphonia,distressed inspiratory effort
Keep calm, get to ED, do not examine throat, humidified o2 by blow by mgt acute epiglottis or acute supraglottitis
most common cause of hospitalization in kids < 1 yr respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
s/s low grade fever, rhinorrhea, om, Conjunctivitis (RSV) resp syncytial virus
acute,viral infection (esp resp)in the bronchioles bronchiolitis
air trapping causes hyperinflation of some alveolar and some atelectasis bronchiolitis
wheezing d/t narrowing of airway b/c of edema and secretions bronchiolitis
cough, grunting,cyanosis,pallor n lethargy,nasal flaring,retraction (ribs clavicular and substernal) cm of bronchiolitis
cxr,pe,wbc will be norm, sputum culture bronchiolitis dx
rest,fluids,fever control tx at home with bronchiolitis
o2,ivf,abx if bacterial,ribavirin->agent for kids tx hops bronchiolitis
acute resp infec of lungs, alveoli are filled w/pus and fluid, makes breathing painful and linits oxygen intake pneumonia
pneumonia all or large segment of 1 or more pulmonary lobes lobar pneumonia
pneumonia alveolar, peri-bronchial and interlobular tissues involved interstitial pneumonia
more diffuse, invlobes bronchi and general lung fields in pneumonia bronchopneumonia
PE, cxr, sputum culture dx for pneumonia
Bacterial =abx, vial=supportive care tx for pneumonia
Chronic inflammatory d/o of the airway asthma
Recurrent episodes of wheezing, breathlessness,chest tightness and cough est @ night asthma
Antigens (allergens) irritants (tabacco,odors,sprays) infections meds->asa,nsaids,abx,bb asthma triggers
Swimming is good b/c of moisture r/t asthma
H&P,cxr to rule out others disease of food in lung, chg in pulm funct esp peak expiratory flow dx asthma
Sit up, w/over head table, give o2, fluids juice or soda mgt of asthma
Coke has catteine-> old fashion tx for asthma
This relaxes smooth muscle , dialates bronchial passages, vasodiates muscles and liver, relaxes uterine muscles too beta agonists
For exacerbations, short acting albuterol
Long acting ongoing mgmt. salmeterol
Asthma and labor=relaxes smooth muscle (trabutale)beta agonist
Leukotriene receptor agonist (LTRA)=maint for asthma and for seasonal allergies’ montelukast (singulair)
Chronic mast cell stabilizer that blocks calcium channels preventing release of histamine cromolyn
Anticholinergic that blocks receptors in smooth muscle of bronchi and lings and opens bronchi and provides relief ipratropium (atrovent)
Short burst to help attack or long term , q am ex methyprednisone systemic steroids
Call from tea leaves theophylline
Albuterol (saba) and oral dexamethasone is tx for mild to moderate asthma in ER
Nebulized ipratropium bromide (atrovent) and SABA q 20 min increase to 3 tx, O2 sever tx asthma
Desplays resp distress despite vigaourse measures, status asthmaticus
Why mg sulfates status asthmtaticus smooth muscle relaxant
Be prompt with tx and times, monitor for resp issues, child will be most comfortable on up position over table, avoid trigger and infection mgt asthma
Autosomal recessive from both parents on chromosome 7 cystic fibrosis
Lung congestion and infection, malabsorption of nutrients by the pancreas cystic fibrosis
Mucus plugs thing up instead of thin secretions, thick mucoprotien meconium ileus is earliest postnatal sign->small, intestine blocked up w/thick putty->pancreatic fibrosis (seceretions block ducts) cystic fibrosis
Sweat test-> Salty skin because plugs-> >60 cystic fibrosis
Amniocyntesis, fam hx, dna analysis, ri does newborn screenings cystic fibrosis
Meconium ileus, failure to grow,statorrhea,freq resp infect cystic fibrosis
Drainage w/vest, percussion, needed 2xday for 20-30 min, moist air is good cystic fibrosis
Oral enzyme sup, pain releivers like advil,motrin, ibuprofen may slow ling deterioration cystic fibrosis
Created by: troop27