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LEA Quiz 1

Introduction and Review

QuestionAnswer
What is another name for the gluteal region? The buttock
What are the boundaries of the gluteal region? Extends from the posterior iliac crest to the gluteal fold
What is another name for the hip region? Coxal region
What are the boundaries of the coxal region? Anterolateral from inguinal ligament to the inferior extent of the hip joint
What is another name for the thigh region? Femoral region
What are the boundaries of the femoral region? Inferior aspect of the pelvis to the knee
The femoral region has what regions? Anterior, posterior and medial regions
What is another name for the knee region? Genus region
Where is the genus region located? Between thigh and leg regions
The genus region has what regions? Anterior and posterior regions
What is another name for the leg region? Crus region
The crus region is between which two structures? Knee and ankle
The crus region has what regions? Anterior, posterior and lateral regions
What is another name for the calf region? Sural region
The rounded (shapely) part at the proximal posterior region of the leg is best described as what? Sural region
What is another name for the ankle region? Talus region
The talus region is between what two structures? Leg and foot
The talus region includes what two structures? Medial malleolus and lateral malleolus
What is another name for the foot region? Pes region
The pes region has what three regions? Dorsal region, plantar region, and calcaneal region
Describe the dorsal region of the foot. The superior part or dorsum of the foot
Describe the plantar region of of the foot. The interior part or planta of the foot
The plantar region of the foot is divided into what regions? Medial, lateral, and central regions
What is another term for the heel? Calcaneal region
The calcaneal region of the foot is divided into what regions? Medial, lateral, and plantar regions
What is another term for anterior surface? Ventral surface
What does ventral surface mean? The front side of a part, except the foot
What is another term for posterior surface? Dorsal surface
What does dorsal surface mean? The back side of a part, except the foot
What is a medial surface? The inner side of a part, toward body's midline
What is a lateral surface? The outer side of a part, opposite body's midline
What does flexor surface mean? The surface over the flexor muscles
The flexor surface of the leg is the __________ surface of the leg posterior
What does extensor surface mean? The surface over the extensor muscles
The extensor surface of the thigh is the ____________ surface of the thigh. anterior
What does adductor surface mean? The surface over the adductor muscles
The adductor surface of the thigh is the __________ surface of the thigh. medial
What does abductor surface mean? The surface generally over the abductor muscles.
The abductor surface of the thigh is the __________ surface of the thigh. lateral
Describe the patellar surface. The anterior surface of the knee region, over the patella
Describe the popliteal surface. The posterior surface of the knee region
Describe the medial malleolar surface. The surface over the medial malleolus of the tibia at the ankle region
Describe the lateral malleolar surface. The surface over the lateral malleolus of the fibula at the ankle region
What does dorsal surface of the foot mean? The superior surface or dorsum of the foot
What does plantar surface of the foot mean? The inferior surface, sole or planta of the foot
Describe what anatomic position means. The body is standing erect with the toes and palms facing anterior
Described relaxed standing. The torso is slightly slouched, the toes are often directly slightly lateral and the palms are facing medially
What position is the position of reference for much anatomic terminology? Anatomic position
What do superior, cephalic, and cranial mean? Toward the head
What do inferior and caudal mean? Away from the head
What do anterior and ventral mean? Toward the front side
In embryology, is the term ventral or anterior used? Ventral
What do posterior and dorsal mean? Toward the back side
The term dorsal is usually reserved for embryology except for describing what structure? The foot (dorsum)
What does medial mean? Closer to the midline (central line) of the body or body part
Describe what lateral means. Farther from the midline of the body or body part
Describe what intermediate means. Between two structures
Describe what ipsilateral means. On the same side of the body
Describe what contralateral means. Opposite side of the body
The terms ipsilateral and contralateral are most often used for what subject? Neurology
Describe what proximal means. Closer to the origin/main structure
Describe what distal means. Farther from the origin/main structure.
Describe what superficial means. Closer to the surface
Describe what deep means. Farther from the surface, closer to the center
Flexion _____________ the angle between body parts, generally decreases
Flexion is usually in which direction? Anterior except at the knee and more distal joints where it is a posterior direction
Extension ____________ the angle between body parts, generally increases
Extension is usually in which direction? Posterior except at the knee and more distal joints where it is an anterior direction
What is hyperextension? Extension beyond the anatomic position
Where does hyperextension normally occur? Neck, wrist, hip, ankle and MTP joints (term not usually used for hip, ankle, or MTP joints)
Describe abduction. Moving a part away from the body's midline
Describe adduction. Moving a part toward the midline of the body
Describe rotation. Moving around the long axis of a part
Where does rotation primarily occur? Hip and shoulder joints
Describe what medial rotation/internal rotation means. Anterior surface of the part moves toward the body's midline
Describe what lateral rotation/external rotation means. Anterior surface of the part moves away from the body's midline
Movement of a part in a circular motion is called what? Circumduction
Combining flexion and extension with abduction and adduction in an alternating sequence is known as what? Circumduction
Moving the sole of the foot away from the body's midline is known as what? Eversion
Moving the sole of the foot toward the body's midline is known as what? Inversion
Extension of the ankle joint or joints distal to the ankle joint (bringing the dorsum of the foot closer to the anterior surface of the leg) is known as what? Dorsiflexion
Flexion of the ankle joint or joints distal to the ankle joint (moving the dorsum of the foot farther from the anterior surface of the leg) is known as what? Plantar flexion
Combining plantar flexion, adduction, and inversion of the foot is known as what type of movement? Supination
During supination, motion occurs at what two joints? Functional subtalar joint and midtarsal joint
Combining dorsiflexion, abduction, and eversion of the foot is known as what type of motion? Pronation
During pronation, motion occurs at what two joints? Functional subtalar joint and the midtarsal joint
Dividing the body or body parts into anterior and posterior sections is known as what? Frontal planes/coronal planes
Dividing the body or body parts into superior and inferior sections is known as what? Transverse planes
Dividing the body or body parts into right and left sections is known as what? Sagittal planes
Dividing the body into equal right and left halves is specifically known as what? Midsagittal plane/median sagittal plane
Dividing the body into any sagittal plane except the midsagittal plane is known as what? Parasagittal plane
The plane which divides the body into equal parts is known as what? Cardinal body planes
What is another name for the midsagittal plane? Cardinal sagittal plane
Dividing the body into equal anterior and posterior halves is known as what? Cardinal frontal plane/cardinal coronal plane
Dividing the body into equal superior and inferior halves is known as what? Cardinal transverse plane
Where two bones meet is known as what? joints/articulations
Joints are classified by what two descriptors? Functional and structural
What determines how functional a joint is? The amount of movement available at the joint
An immovable joint is known as what type of joint? Synarththrosis
Give an example of a synarthrosis. Sutures of the skull
A slightly movable joint is known as what? Amphiarthrosis
Most amphiarthosis are what? Cartilaginous
Give an example of an amphiarthrosis. Symphysis pubis
A freely movable joint is known as what? Diarthrosis
All diarthroses are what? Synovial
Diarthrosis joints are found primarily in what type of limb? Lower
Give an example of a diarthrosis joint. Hip joint
Joints based on the material that unites the bone ends is called what? Structural
Joints united by fibrous tissue are what? Fibrous
Sutures of the skull are what? Functional synarthroses
Joints between a tooth and the alveolus/socket are known as what? Gomphosis
Gomphosis is what type of joint? Functional synarthroses
2 bones held together by a sheet of fibrous tissue is known as what? Syndesmosis
Give an example of a syndesmosis. Tibiofibular syndesmosis
Syndesmosis are what type of joint? Functional amphiarthroses
Joints united by cartilage are what? Cartilaginous
What type of joint is united by hyaline cartilage, is temporary, and is a functional synarthrosis? Primary cartilaginous joint
Give an example of a primary cartilaginous joint. Epiphyseal/growth plates
What type of joint is united by fibrocartilage, is permanent, and is a functional amphiarthrosis? Seconfary cartilaginous joint
Give two examples of secondary cartilaginous joints. Intervertebral discs and symphysis pubis
What is the primary type of joint in lower limbs? Synovial
What are the five components of synovial joints? 1. Articular capsule/fibrous joint capsule 2. Articular cartilage (usually hyaline cartilage) 3. Synovial membrane 4. Synovial fluid 5. Joint cavity
All synovial joints are what? Functional diarthroses
Joints that have flat surface bone ends and allow gliding movements only (no rotation) are called what? Plane/planar/gliding joints
Give an example of a plane/planar/gliding joint. Intertarsal joints
Joints that have complex surface shapes that may involve more than bones and allow movement in one plane (flexion and extension) Hinge/ginglymus joints
Give an example of a hinge/ginglymus joint. Ankle joint
Joints with 1 rounded, ball-like projection and 1 shallow saucer-like surface and allow movmeent in two planes; flexion and extension, abduction and adduction, and circumduction are called what? Condyloid/ellipsoid joints
Give an example of a condyloid/ellipsoid joint. Metatarsophalangeal joints
Joints with 2 saddle shaped surface and allow movement in two planes; flexion and extension or abduction and adduction (not both at the same time) and have a small amount of rotation due to joint surface shapes are called what? Saddle/sellar joints
Give an example of a saddle/sellar joint. Calcaneocuboid joint
Joints with 2 large rounded projections contacting 2 saucer-like areas and allow movement primarily in one plane with a small amount of rotation are called what? Bicondylar
Give an example of a bicondylar joint. Knee joint
Joints with 1 large rounded, ball-like projection and 1 cup-like depression, allow movements int hree planes, and have all movements (flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction, internal rotation, and external rotation are called what? Ball and socket/spheroid
Give an example of a spheroid joint. Hip joint
The study of bone is called what? Osteology
Dense conntective tissue that connects bone to bone and often blends with articular capsules is called what? Ligament
What are the two types of bone composition? Compact/cortical/dense and cancellous/trabecular/spongy
What bone composition is very solid, appears white on radiographs due to closely packed cells, and provides strength to the bone is called what? Compact, cortical or dense bone
What bone composition appears as thin interlaced plates on radiographs due to loosely packed cells and has a good blood supply for rapid healing is known as what? Cancellous, trabecular or spongy bone
"Plates" or lattice pieces are known as what? Trabeculae
What are the two types of bones in the body? Axial and appendicular bones
Name the axial bones. Skull, vertebrae, ribs, sternum and manubrium
Name the upper limb appendicular bones. Pectoral girdle (scapula and clavicle), humerus, radius, ulna, carpus, metacarpus, and manual phalanges
Name the lower limb appendicular bones. Pelvic girdle (os coxa), femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsus (greater and lesser), metatarsus, and pedal phalanges (in the toes).
What shape of bone has usually a greater length than width, found in the limbs, and has a slight posterior/plantar concavity (curvature) in the lower limb for strength? Long bones
Give an example of a long bone. Femur
What is the central tubular part of the bone and is primarily made of compact bone? Diaphysis/shaft/body
What is the hollow core in the diaphysis that contains bone marrow? Medullary cavity
What are the ends of the bone that has a core of cancellous bone with a thin covering of compact bone and have areas of articulation covered with cartilage? Epiphyses
What are the flared parts between the diaphysis and epiphyses that has a core of cancellous bone with a thin covering of compact bone? Metaphyses
What shape of bone is roughly cube-shaped, found only in the carpus and tarsus, and has a core of cancellous bone with a thin covering of compact bone? Short bones
Give two example of short bones. Cuboid and cuneiforms
What shape of bone has complex shapes with varying amounts of cancellous and compact bone? Irregular bones
Give two examples of irregular bones. Vertebrae and facial bones
Bones with two parallel plates of compact bone with a minute amount of cancellous bone between the two plates is called what? Flat bones
Give two examples of flat bones. Ribs and skull
Bones that are round or oval bones located within tendons and often joint capsules are called what? Sesamoid bones
Name the two functions of sesamoid bones. 1. Protect the tendon from wear 2. Create a mechanical advantage for the muscle by changing the angle of the pull and altering the muscle action
What is the largest sesamoid bone in the body? Patella
Give two examples of sesamoid bones. Patella and the sesamoids in the first metatarsal bone
What type of bones are small with smooth regular edges, may be a non-fused portion of an existing bone or an extra bone, may be located within joint capsules, and are plentiful in the foot? Accessory bones/accessory ossicles
Give two examples of accessory bones/accessory ossicles. Os intermetatarseum (between the metatarsal bases) and os supratalare
What is an opening (hole) for the passage of vessels and nerves? Foramen (foramina)
Give two examples of foramina. Nutrient foramen and sacral foramina
What is a ditch-like furrow for the passage of soft tissue structures? Sulcus (sulci), groove
Name an example of a groove and a sulcus. Obturator groove and lateral malleolar sulcus
What is a depression in or on a bone? Fossa (fossae)
Name two examples of fossae. Iliac fossa and lateral malleolar fossa
What is an indentation along the edge of a bone called? Notch
Give an example of a notch. Greater sciatic notch
What is a large rounded or depressed articular prominence? Condyle
Give an example of a condyle. Medial femoral condyle
What is a small prominence superior to a condyle called? Epicondyle
Give an example of an epicondyle. Medial epicondyle of the femur
What is a smooth flat surface for articulation called? Facet
Give an example of a facet. Middle facet of the calcaneus
What is a small rounded prominence for the attachment of soft tissue structures called? Tubercle
Give an example of a tubercle. Adductor tubercule of the femur
What is a large rounded prominence, often roughened for the attachment of soft tissue structures? Tuberosity
Give an example of a tuberosity. Tibial tuberosity
What is a large blunt process only on the femur called? Trochanter
Give an example of a trochanter. Greater trochanter
What is a prominent border or ridge called? Crest
Give an example of a crest. Median sacral crest
What is a ridge, much less prominent than a crest called? Line, ridge
Give an example of a line/ridge. Soleal line of the tibia
All lower extremity bones begin as what (except the tufts of the distal phalanges)? Cartilage
What type of ossification process do the tufts of the distal phalanges undergo? Intramembranous ossification
The ossificaiton process from cartilage to bone is called what? Endochondral bone formation or intracartilaginous ossification
What type of ossification center is at the midshaft of the bone, are all present at birth for lower limb long bones, and forms the major part of the diaphysis? Primary ossification center
True or false: Primary ossification centers of all of the lower limb long bones are present at birth. True
What type of ossification center is located in the extremities (ends), may be present at birth, may have one or more of these present for each extremity, and form the epiphyses Secondary ossification centers
What are areas of cartilage between the diaphysis and the epiphyses, allow for length-wise growth of bone, and form the metaphyses and part of the diaphysis? Epiphyseal plate/physis
Long bones have what three things? Primary ossification center, secondary ossification center, and epiphyseal plate/physis
What bone is an exception to the statement that short bones mostly only have one center of ossification. Calcaneus
Radiographically, what can be used to determine age? Appearance of the centers of ossification of the short bones of the foot (using the bones of the hand is more accurate as there is less variability in the age of appearance of the centers of ossification of the manual short bones.
What is the study of muscles? Myology
What is the connective tissue continuation of the muscle and attaches muscle to bone? Tendon
What is a double layer of connective tissue around a tendon with a small amount of fluid between the layers and allows tendons to glide freely when the muscle contracts or relaxes and prevents friction or damage to the tendon? Tendon sheath
What is located at the area where the layers of tendon sheath meet each other and may remain as a single structure or partially or completely degenerate? Mesotendon
What is the name given to areas of mesotendon that are present on the flexor tendons of the hand or foot? Vincula
What is the function of the vincula? Areas for passage of vessels that nourish the tendon
What is the area of a tendon where there is the greatest potential of injury due to a lack of blood supply (on tendons that do not have tendon sheaths)? Watershed area
For tendons without sheaths, where does the majority of the blood supply come from? Muscle (bone too but less)
A flat connective tissue sheet that attaches muscle to muscle, muscle to bone or muscle to skin called? Aponeurosis
Give two examples of aponeuroses? Plantar aponeurosis and plantar fascia
A fluid-filled sac that decreases friction between 2 structures; ligament and bone, ligament and ligament, muscle and bone, tendon and tendon, bone and skin is called what? Bursa
What is located just beneath the skin and develops as a result of abnormal friction? Adventitious bursa
Give an example where an adventitious bursa may develop? Over a bunion
Heart muscle tissue is also known as what? Cardiac muscle (striated)
Muscle of viscera is what type of muscle? Non-striated muscle/smooth muscle
Voluntary, striated muscle is called what? Skeletal
The contractile part of a skeletal muscle (actual muscle tissue) is called what? Belly
The functional stable attachment of muscle that doesn't move is called what? Origin
The functional mobile attachement of muscle is called what? Insertion
What are the three possible directions of muscle fibers? Rectus, transversus, and oblique
Muscle fibers that are parallel to the midline are called what? Rectus
Give two examples of rectus fibers. Rectus femoris muscle and rectus abdominis muscles
Muscle fibers that are perpendicular to midline are called what? Transversus
Give two example of transversus fibers. Transversus abdominis muscle and transverse head of adductor hallucis muscle
Muscle fibers that are at an angle less than perpendicular to the midline are called what? Oblique
Give two examples of oblique fibers. Oblique head of adductor hallucis muscle and internal oblique muscle (of abdomen)
Maximus means what? Largest
Give an example of a maximus muscle. Gluteus maximus muscle
Minimus means what? Smallest
Give an example of a minimus muscle. Gluteus minimus muscle
Magnus means what? Large
Give an example of a magnus muscle. Adductor magnus muscle
Longus means what? Longest
Give an example of a longus muscle. Adductor longus muscle
Brevis means what? Shortest
Give an example of a brevis muscle. Adductor brevis muscle
How many origins does the quadriceps femoris muscle have? 4
How many origins does the biceps brachii muscle have? 2
Give an example of a quadrangular muscle. Quadratus plantae muscle
Give an example of a trapezoidal muscle. Trapezius muscle
What muscle originates from the sternum and clavicle and inserts on the mastoid process of the temporal bone? Sternocleidomastoid muscle
What is the origin of the iliacus muscle? Iliac fossa
What is the function of the flexor digitorum longus muscle? Flexes the digits
What is the function of the abductor hallucis muscle? Abducts the hallux
Arteries carry blood ______ from the heart. away
Large arteries with lumen diameters greater than wall thickness and conduct blood (from the heart) to medium-sized arteries are called what? Conducting/elastic arteries
Give three examples of conducting/elastic arteries. Aorta, branches from aortic arch and the common iliac arteries
Tiny vessels within the walls of conducting arteries to nourish these large vessels are called what? Vasa vasorum
Medium-sized arteries with lumen diameters about equal to wall thickness that distribute blood to different body parts (to arterioles in these parts) are called what? Distributing/muscular arteries
Give seven examples of distributing/muscular arteries. external and internal iliac, femoral, popliteal, anterior and posterior tibial, and peroneal arteries
Small arteries that have a large amount of smooth muscle in their walls that can change blood pressure by contracting or relaxing and supply individual structures within parts and are direct blood to capillary beds for exchange of nutrients and wastes? Arterioles
An artery that is the only blood supply for an area and occlusion of this artery results in death of area is called what? End artery
Give two examples of end arteries Ophthalmic artery and proper digital arteries
Veins carry blood ________ the heart in a _______ to ________ direction in limbs. toward, distal, proximal
A vena comitans travels with what? respective artery
Give an example of an artery and its vena comitans. Femoral artery and femoral vein
What type of veins travel without arteries in the superficial fascia (layer beneath the skin)? Superficial veins
2 or 3 small veins that accompany an artery and are inferior to the knee in lower limb are called what? Venae comitantes
Small veins that carry blood to larger veins are known as what? Venules
Microscopic vessels that allow exchange of nutrients and wastes for cells and directs blood to venules is called what? Capillaries
Vessels that carry lymph fluid (like plasma), which extravasates (escapes) from capillaries is called what? Lymphy vessels
What is present within lymph vessels and are more prevalent in lymph than in veins due to lower pressure in the lymphatic system to prevent back flow of the lymph fluid? Valves
What do you call open-ended microscopic vessels that begin between cells and transport lymph to afferent lymph vessels? Lymph capillaries
What do you call smell vessels that carry lymph fluid to lymph nodes? Afferent lymph vessels
What do you call oval or kidney-shaped structures that filter lymph fluid before returning it to the general circulation? Lymph nodes
What do you call small vessels that carry lymph fluid away from lymph nodes? Efferent lymph vessels
What do you call large lymph vessels that collect lymph fluid from a region? Lymph trunks
Give an example of a lymph trunk. Lumbar trunk collects from lower limb
What do you call communications between arteries and/or veins? Anastomoses
What do you call an artery to artery communication that proves an alternate source of blood suppy to an area (more than one route to the same end)? Arterial anastomosis
Arterial anastomoses are often called what? Collateral circulation (actually not because collateral circulation has new vessels)
What do you call vein to vein communication that provides an alternate return route for blood & is very common possibly because of the lower pressure in the venous system as compared to the arterial system which makes it easier to occlude venous vessels? Venous anastomoses
Communications between an arteriole & a venule that help regulate body temperature by directing blood away from the surface to deeper tissues or vice versa & can be traumatically induced as in gunshot wounds & may need to be surgically repaired? Arteriovenous shunts
Arteries tend to cross the ________ surface of muscles to prevent collapse, so they do not get stretched to closing or crushed. flexor
What is contained within the skull and spinal column? Central nervous system (CNS)
What structure is housed within the skull? Brain
What carries impulses towards the CNS? Afferent fibers
What carries impulses away from the CNS? Efferent fibers
What is housed within the spinal column? Spinal cord and spinal roots
Nerve cell bodies in the spinal cord are located where? In the central grey matter
Name the horns of the spinal cord. Dorsal, ventral, and lateral horns
Name the three components of the CNS. Brain, spinal cord, and spinal roots
Inferior to the spinal cord near the _______ ________ _________, the spinal roots are long and are called ________ ________ which means horse's tail. second lumbar vertebra, cauda equina
What is a collection of nerve cell bodies in the dorsal root? Dorsal root ganglion
What type of fibers are carried in the dorsal root/dorsal spinal root? Afferent fibers
What type of fibers are carried in the ventral root/ventral spinal root? Efferent fibers
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is located where? Outside the skull and spinal column
What are located at the junction of dorsal and ventral roots (located at the intervertebral foramina) Spinal nerves
Dorsal and ventral primary rami both contain what? Afferent and efferent fibers
Caudal ones are small branches; lumbar, sacral and coccygeal dorsal rami supply motor and sensory innervation to the muscles of the spinal column via what? Dorsal primary rami
Large branches; lumbar, sacral and coccygeal ventral rami form plexuses and supply motor and sensory innervation to the lower limb via what? Ventral primary rami
What innervates the viscera and smooth (non-striated) muscle of blood vessels and glands and is an efferent or motor system? Autonomic nervous system (ANS)
What system is responsible for responses to stress or emergency situations, "fight, fright and flight" responses, and increased heart rate and blood pressure? Sympathetic nervous system
The sympathetic nervous system arises from ________ and ________ spinal cord and is distributed via the ____________ _________. thoracic, lumber, sympathetic chain
What spinal segments do the lower limbs receive responses from the sympathetic nervous system? T10, T11, T12, L1, L2
What follows blood vessels (external iliac and femoral aa.) or nerves (femoral n.) in the lower limb? Sympathetic nervous system
What system is responsible for conservation responses and decreased heart rate and respiration? Parasympathetic nervous system
The parasympathetic nervous system arises from _______ and _________ segments of the central nervous system. Cranial and sacral
What follows other nerves or form nerves (pelvic splanchnic nerves) to supply the area and also doesn't supply the lower limbs? Parasympathetic nervous system
Created by: sam41990