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hesi a2 grammar

noun a word that names a person place thing or idea
common noun the general name of a person, place, or thing: e.g., nurse, hospital, syringe.
proper noun the official name of a person, place or thing: e.g., Fred, Paris, Washington University. (Proper nouns are capitalized)
abstract noun the name of a quality or a general idea: e.g., persistence, democracy
collective noun represents a group of persons, animals, or things: e.g., family, flock, furniture
pronoun a word that takes place of a noun, another pronoun, or a group of words acting as a noun. Ex: their, them.
the word to which a pronoun refers is called ________ antecedent
possessive pronoun mine, my, his, her. It does not contain apostrophe.
adjective word that describes a noun. ex: BIOLOGY book, he is NICE.
What type of questions does an adjective answer? what kind? which one? how many? how much? answers: HARD test, ENGLISH test, THREE test, MANY tests.
verb word that express an action.
examples of linking verbs: am, is, are, was , were, being, been. Example: that man IS my professor.
linking verbs can relate to the 5 senses: look, sound, smell, feel, and taste. EX: that exam LOOKS difficult.
Linking verbs can relate to a state of being: appear, seem, become, grow, turn, prove, remain. EX: the professor SEEMS tired.
adverb word that describes a verb, adjective, or adverb.
adverb modifying a verb: the physician operates QUICKLY
adverb modifying an adjective: the nurse wears VERY colorful uniforms
adverb modifying another adverb: the strudent scored QUITE badly on the exam
preposition word that shows the relationship of a noun or pronoun to sme other word in the sentance. EX: in, out, near, inside, off
conjunction word that joins word, phrases or clauses. EX: and, but, or, so, nor, for, yet.
interjection expresses emotion or exclamation. EX: YIKES, that test was hard. WHEW, that test was easy.
independent clause expresses a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence. EX: THE PROFESSOR DISTRIBUTED THE TEST as soon as the students were seated.
dependent clause usually begins with (after, because, before, until, since, or when) and does not express a complete thought. It cannot stand alone as a sentence. EX: The professor distributed the exam AS SOON AS THE STUDENTS WERE SEATED.
when a sentence begins with a dependent clause use a ________ to set it apart from the independent clause. comma
direct object the person or thing directly affected by the action of the verb. EX: the students watched the PROFESSOR distribute the test. The students watched WHOM distribute the test? THE PROFESSOR.
indirect object person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb.
what type of question does the indirect question answer: to whom, for whom, to what, or for what after an action verb. EX: the professor gave HIS class the test.
predicate tells what the subject does or what is done to the subject
predicate adjective follows a linking verb and helps to explain the subject. EX: my professors are WONDERFUL
predicate nominative noun that follow sa linking verb and help to explain or rename the subject. EX: professors are TEACHERS.
Declarative sentence makes a statement. EX: I went to the store.
Interrogative sentence asks a question. EX: Did you go to the store?
Imperative sentence makes a comand or request. EX: Go to the store.
Exclaimatory sentence makes an exclamation. EX: You went to the store!
Subject word, phrase, or clause that names whom or what the sentence is about
cliche expressions that have lost their orginality over time because of excessive usage.
examples of Cliches blind as a bat, dead as a doornail, flat as a pancake, raining cats and dogs, sick as a dog, under the weather, and you cant judge a book by it's cover.
euphemism a nicer term used to substitute for one that is considered harsh, blunt or offensive. EX: instead of dead use PASSED AWAY.
sexist language words phrases that do not include or reflect the presence of women in our society.
examples of sexist language: Fireman, Mailman, forefathers, chairman, policeman. Instead use non sexist language like: firefighter, Mail carrier, ancestors, chairperson, and police officer
affect vs effect Affect is used to influence or to change, and is an emotional response. Effect is a noun or verb it means results or outcome.
i.e. vs e.g i.e. means that is. e.g. means for example.
example of i.e. I love to study chemistry, i.e., the science dealing with the compostion and properties of mater
example of e.g. i love to study chemistry, e.g., chemical equations, atomic structure and molar relations.
learn vs teach Learn is to recieve and aquire knowledge. Teach is to give or impart knowledge.
lie vs lay Lie means to recline or rest (refers to a person). Lay means to put or place something down (refers to an object)
examples of lie I LIE down to rest, I was LYING on the sofa
exaples of lay I LAY the book on the table, I am LAYING the folder on the table now.
who vs whom use WHO if he, she, i or we can be substituted in the who clause. Use WHOM if him, them, me or us can be substituted as the object in the whom clause.
Among Use to show a relationship invoving more than 2 persons or things being considered as a group. EX: The professor will distribute the textbooks AMONG the students in his class.
Between use to show a relationship involving 2 persons or things. EX: i sat BETWEEN Holly and Joe in class.
Amount Use when refering to things in bulk. EX: the nurse had a huge AMOUNT of paperwork.
Number Use when referring to individual, coutable units. EX: the nurse had a number of charts to complete.
Good an adjective used before nouns. EX: He did a GOOD job. Use before linking verbs EX: She smells GOOD.
Well use as an adverb EX: she plays softball WELL. use as an adjective only to describe someone's health EX: She is getting WELL.
Bad ex: He is a BAD teacher, That smells BAD.
Badly ex: The students behaved BADLY in class. Do not use BADLY when speaking about senses EX: you felt BAD. or the perfume smells BAD.
Bring to carry somethign from a distant place to a near place. EX: please BRING your textbooks to class.
Take to carry from a near place to a distant place. EX: please TAKE your textbooks home.
Can/Could Imply ability or power. EX: I CAN get an A in this class.
May/Might Imply permission. EX: you MAY leave early. EX: MAY I go to the restroom?
farther refers to a measurable distance. EX: the walk to class is much FARTHER than i expected.
Further refers to a figurative distance and means to a greater degree. EX: I will have to study FURTHER to make better grades. It also means moreover EX: FURTHERMORE, let me tell you something. Also means in addition to EX: The student had nothing FURTHER to say.
Fewer refers to number, things that can be counted or numbered. EX: the professor has FEWER students in his mrng class than he has in his night class.
less refers to degree or amount, things in bulk. EX: fewer patients means LESS work for the staff. It's also used when referrng to numeric or statistic terms EX: It's LESS than 2 miles to school. He scored LESS than 90 on the test. She spent less than $400.
Created by: lilybu126