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physiol n dev

climate control of the testes, must be slightly cooler than body scrotum
how many hrs are sperm fertile for 72
male puberty starts at age 12-16
muscular organ at the top of the vagina supported by ligaments and the site menstartion, egg implantation, fetus developement, labor uterus
top of uterus dome shaped fundus
bottom portion extends to vagina will open to 10cm cervix
layer of uterine wall that sheds during period endometrium
how many cm is the cervix 2-5cm
ea 12 cm long, less than 1cm in diameter, site for fertilization in ampulla Fallopian tubes
almond shaped organs, produce ova, secrete estrogen, progesterone ovaries
attainment of mature sexual charactoristics in response to estrogen and progesterone age 10-14 female puberty 1st manarche
female reproductive cycle endometrial cycle (uterus), ovarian cycle (egg)
levels are relatively low during the preovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle, rise after ovulation, and are elevated during the luteal phase progesterone
uterus grows a new, thickened lining that can hold a fertilized egg (endometrium)
secretes a moderate amt of estrogen to inhibit release of GnRH & secretion of LH and FSH; is a visible coll of blood left after rupture of the follicle that secretes progesterone. corpus luteum
is a hormone produced by gonadotroph cells in the anterior pituitary gland. In females, an acute rise of LH ("LH surge") triggers ovulation Luteinizing hormone
regulates the development, growth, pubertal maturation, and reproductive processes of the body.This and luteinizing hormone (LH) act synergistically in reproduction. Specifically, an increase in this secretion by the anterior pituitary causes ovulation. Follicle-stimulating hormone
these are a fam of protiens which include FSH & LH Gonadotropins
what happens during the menstrual phase of the menstral cylce shedding of the lining of the uterus
what happens during the proliferative phase of the menstral cylce estrogen increases
what happens during the secretory phase of the menstral cylce increased progesterone causes the endomertrium to thicken in prep for implantation, estrogen levels drop
During this ovarian cycle, hormonal influences such as LH n FSH; LH surge releases egg from follicle Follicular
During this ovarian cycle, Estrogen levels drop; ovum lifespan is 24hrs ovulation
During this ovarian cycle, day 14-28 after the follicle ruptures and releases the egg, it forms a corpus luteum luteal (corpus luteum secrets progesterone->endometrium to prep for implantation; if no implant ->corpus breaks down)
last menstrual period is dated with certaintly only 1 yr p menstruation menopause
how many pairs of homologous chromosomes in normal human somatic cells 23
how many chromosomes are inherited from each patent 1 chromosome of ea pair
how many pairs of autosomes which control most traits 22
how many sex chromosomes control primarily sex determination 1
total chromosomes 46
is a test to examine chromosomes in a sample of cells, which can help identify genetic problems as the cause of a disorder or disease <40y Karyotyping
may be differerences in number or structure of chromosomes autosomal albormalities
If the chromosome pairs fail to separate properly during cell division, the egg or sperm may end up with a second copy of one of the chromosomes. trisomy (numerical abnormality)
the presence of an extra chromosome 21, which is found in Down syndrome, is called trisomy 21.
Women with Turner syndrome typically have one X chromosome instead of the usual two sex chromosomes. Turner syndrome is the only full ____ that is seen in humans—all other cases of full are lethal and the individual will not survive development. monosomy
cells and organisms are those containing more than two paired (homologous) sets of chromosomes. Polyploid
a single crease across the palms (Simian crease),flat facial profile,tongue may appear large in relationship to the mouth,(upward slant of eyes) characteristics and physical symptoms of Down Syndrome
a genetic d/o that affects a girl's dev caused by a missing or incomplete X chromosome.They are short,& their ovaries don't work properly.Most are infertile;n at risk for health prob like high BP,kidney prob,DM,cataracts,osteoporosis & thyroid prob. Turner syndrome (X45)
Short, "webbed" neck with folds of skin from tops of shoulders to sides of neck Low hairline in the back Low-set ears Swollen hands and feet Turner syndrome
a genetic condition that results when a boy is born with an extra copy of the X chromosome,affects testicular growth,produce little or no sperm Klinefelter syndrome (trisomy XXY)
an autosomal dominat d/o;growth hormone deficiency have a slow or flat rate of growth, usually less than 2 inches per year. The slow growth may not appear until a child is 2 or 3 years old. Pituitary dwarfism
uniting sperm and ovum form a zygote (46 chromosomes),takes place in the ampulla of fallopian tube fertilization
egg fertilized by Y bearing sperm = XY Male
egg fertilized by X bearing sperm = XX Females
offspring produced from two oocytes (______) fertilized at the same time dizygotic
two offspring produced in the same pregnancy and developed from one oocyte (_____) monozygotic
A fertilized ovum up to 14 days old, before it becomes implanted in the uterus. preembryonic developement
preembryonic developementninner cell mass is called _____which form embryo and amnion bastocysts
preembryonic developement outer cell mass is called ______ which form placenta and chorion. trophoblasts
begins to form at implatation from the chorion, maternal portion, fetal portion, attached to mom, rough red texture placenta (shiny gret surface on fetal side)
placenta functions; produces _____, protects ______,seperates _______, & Metabolic functions like resp,nutrition,excretion,storage. hormones (progesterone), fetus from immune attack by mom, barrier separates maternal n fetal blood.
teratogens (etoh,drugs, infections, bacteria)can all pass to fetus via placenta
which stage is most vulnerable period due to rapid growth of all organs and structures forming. embryotic stage (1st 8 wks)
stalk attaches to schultz of placenta, 2 arteries, 1 vein surrounded by whartons jelly, provides circulation and oxygen umbilical cord
this helps maint temp, permits symmetric growth n development, cushions amniotic fluid
what are the three shunts in the circulatory system in fetal life ductus venous (umbilical vein to inferior cava), ductus artery ( pulmonary to aorta), foramen (opening between L & R aorta)
is a blood vessel connecting the pulmonary artery to the aortic arch. It allows most of the blood from the right ventricle to bypass the fetus's fluid-filled non-functioning lungs. ductus arteriosus
shunts approximately half of the blood flow of the umbilical vein directly to the inferior vena cava. Thus, it allows oxygenated blood from the placenta to bypass the liver. ductus venosus
In the fetal heart, the _____ allows blood to enter the left atrium from the right atrium foramen ovale
eyes,ears,noes,mouth recognizable, digits bv, testes/ovaries distiguishable, and tail recedes at wk ____ of fetal developement 8
at what week of fetal dev heart tones can be heard, urine is produced, and resembles a human 12
at what wk of fetal dev fetus can swallow amniotic fluid and first stool dark, green, tar 16
a grayish-white cheeselike substance, consisting of sebaceous gland secretions, lanugo, and desquamated epithelial cells, that covers the skin of the fetus and newborn vernix caseosa wk 24
vernix caseosa, first movements felt by mom, brain formed at week 20
ways to check infertilitly ultra sound to check tubes and uterus, ck LH, estrogen and progesterone
is a process by which an egg is fertilised by sperm outside the body In vitro fertilisation (IVF) pg 206
assisted reproductive tech against infertility. Eggs are removed from a woman's ovaries, and placed in one of the Fallopian tubes, along with the man's sperm. The technique, which was pioneered, allows fertilization to take place inside the woman's uterus Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT)
endometrial cycle where regenerating of the lining just befor bleeding staps and depends on Estrogen proliferation
endometrial cycle starts the first day of ovulation until just before next bleeding starts depends on progesterone secretory
endometrial cycle where if no fertilization occurs, blood supply stopped and marks the first day of period ischemic
follicles mature with fsh n e,follicle pops, corpus luteum forms, ovarian cycle
this hormone is responsible for the final maturation of preovulatory follicles LH
endometrial cycles four things menstral, prolif, secret, ischmic
ovarian cycle has three things follicular,ovluate,luteal
e & p cause the onset of what in female puberty menarche
what hormone allows for the pregnancy to be maintained progesterone
what hormone allows the egg to be free from the follicle prostaglandins
hypothalamic-pituitary cycle gnrh->fsh and LH
LH surge happens during what ovarian phase luteal
FSH surge happens during what ovarian phase follicular
ovulation starts on day 14
how long can menopause last 2-8 yrs
avg age of menopause at which true abscense of period for 1 yr 51
hereditary dna or uniting sperm and ovum form a zygote has how many chromosomes 46
this autosomal ________ abnormality means that part of the chromosome is missing,rearranged, or 2 adhere to each other. Fragile or a specific site on the x chrome structural agnormality
this autosomal ________ abnormality means an added chrom, entire single chrom missing, or one or more added sets of chrom on atosome numerical autosomal abnormalitiy
three copies of chrosome 21 down syndrome
name two sex chromosome abnormalities turner (F x45) and klinefelter (M XXY)
7-10 days after fertilization, blastocyst burrow and endomerium is now called decidua ( uterine lining which forms the maternal part of the placenta.)
what are the metabolic placenta functions resp, nutrition, excretion, storage
baby move in the womb,which allows for proper bone growth,The lungs to develop properly,Keep a relatively constant temperature around the baby,protecting from heat loss Protect the baby from outside injury by cushioning sudden blows or movements amniotic fluid
a woman of 28 weeks of gestation, with an empty bladder, would measure from __to __ cm. 26 to 30, an increase could mean multifetal getstation, or polyhydramnios
Amniotic fluid above 25cm _____ is associated with neural tube defects (NTDs), obstruction of the fetal gastrointestinal tract, multiple fetuses, and fetal hydrops. Polyhydramnios
Amniotic fluid less than 5cm ________is associated with congenital anomalies (e.g., renal agenesis), growth restriction, and fetal distress during labor. Oligohydramnios
Arm and leg buds present,Eyes and nose begin to form,Heart is developing-heart is beating and circulating blood Fetal Development Week 4
Eyelids are closed Tooth buds appear Fetal heart tones can be heard Genitals are well-differentiated but not descended, Urine is produced Spontaneous movement occurs fetal development Week 12
Lanugo begins Blood vessels are clearly developed Active movements are present Fetus makes sucking motions Swallows amniotic fluid Produces meconium fetal development Week 16
sc brown fat appears Quickening is felt by mother Nipples appear over mammary glands Fetal heartbeat is heard by fetoscope wgt 300g 2 cans of tuna fetal development Week 20
Eyes are complete Vernix caseosa covers skin Alveoli are beginning to form wgt 600 g L/S 2:1 fetal development week 24
fetal developmental stage where Arm and leg buds are present,Eyes and nose begin to form,Heart is developing-heart is beating and circulating blood Fetal Development Week 4
Rhythmic breathing; Ability control temperature Bones are fully developed but soft and flexible fetal development Week 12
Increase in subcutaneous fat Lanugo begins to disappear fetal development week 36
Skin polished; Lanugo has disappeared except in upper arms and shoulders Hair is now coarse and approximately 1 inch in length Fetus is flexed fetal development week 38
how do you get the ls ratio amniocentesis
Postcoital Testing tests sperm mobility
Occurs 7 to 10 days after fertilization Blastocyst burrows into endometrium Endometrium is now called decidua
is a set of procedures used to determine Gestational Age through neuromuscular and physical assessment of a newborn fetus new ballard score
Created by: troop27
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