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Chapter 16

Anatomy - - The Respiratory System

The organs of the respiratory system perform what two basic functions? Air Distributor and gas exchanger for the body.
Respiration is an important ________________. Homeostatic mechanism
What does the respiratory system do to the air we breath? filters, warms, and humidifies
Our sense of smell is called? Olfaction
Respiratory organs include the _____________. Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs
The tiny very thin-walled sacs in the lungs are called? Alveoli
Respiratory system is divided into how many tracts, and name them. Two, Upper and lower tracts.
Upper respiratory tract is composed of? Nose, pharynx and larynx
Lower respiratory tract is composed of? trachea, all segments of the bronchial tree, and the lungs.
The membrane that lines most of the air distribution tubes in the respiratory system is called? Respiratory mucosa
The __________________ separates the air in the alveoli from the blood in surrounding capillaries. Respiratory membrane
Air enters through the external nostrils also called? Nares
After air flows through the nares it then flows through. The right and left nasal cavaties.
The partition that separates the nasal cavity is called> The nasal septum
These are painless, noncancerous tissue growth in the nasal mucosa Nasal polyps
What are the names of the four paranasal sinuses Frontal, maxillary sphenoidal, and ethmoidal.
Sinus infections are called Sinusitis
Three shelflike structures protruding into the nasal cavity are called? Conchae or turbinates (as air moves over the conchae is is warmed and humidified)
The throat is also called the Pharynx
The upper part just behind the nasal cavities is called the ___________ nasopharynx
The portion behind the mouth is called the _____________. Oropharynx
The lower segment of the pharynx is called the _________. Laryngopharynx
These connect the middle ears with the nasopharynx. Auditory tubes or Eustachian tubes
Masses of lymphatic tissue embedded in the mucous membrand of the pharynx is called the __________. Tonsils
Name the three tonsils located in our mouth Palatine tonsils, pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids), and lingual tonsils
An infection with inflammation of the tonsils is called. Tonsillitis
Surgical removal of your tonsils is called A tonsillectomy
What is another name for our voice box? The larynx
The largest cartilage of the larynx is called the _______________ Thyroid cartilage or "Adam's Apple"
Thow short bigrous bands that stretch across the interior of the larynx. Vocal cords.
The space between the vocal cords is called the. glottis
Another piece of cartilage that partially covers the opening of the larynx. Epiglottis
Any infection of the upper respiratory tract is called An upper respiratory infection (URI)
Inflammation and swelling of the nasal mucosa is called Rhinitis or common cold
Inflammation or infection of the pharynx is called. Pharyngitis
Inflammation of the mucous lining of the larynx Laryngitis
Life threatening condition caused by Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) infection Epiglottitis
Non-life threatening type of laryngitis seen in children younger than 3 years of age. Croup
Condition in which the nasal septum strays from the midline of the nasal cavity Deviated septum
A nose bleed is also called. Epistaxis
The windpipe is also called The trachea and extends from the larynx in the neck to the bronchi in the chest cavity
The trachea framework consist of 15 to 20 C-shaped noncollapsible rings of cartilage
The Trachea's primary bronci are called The right and left bronchi's
Primary bronchi's branch out into smaller _______________ Secondary bronchi
Small passageways in the bronchi are called? Bronchioles
Bronchioles subdivide into misroscopic tubes called ______________ Alveolar ducts
Each Alveolar duct ends in several _____________ Alveolar sacs
Each alveolar sac is made up of numerous _____________ that resemble grapes. Alveoli
The surface of the respiratory membrand inside the alveolus is covered by a substance called _____________________ and keeps them from collapsing as air moves in and out during respiration Surfactant
Condition caused by the absence or impairment of the surfactant in the fluid that lines the alveoli Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)
A life-threatening condition that often effects prematurely born infants because of the lack of surfactant is called? Infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS)
Condition in adults caused by impairment or remocal of surfactant in the alveoli. Adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
How many lobes do the lunds have? Left lung has 3, right lung has 2
this covers the outer surface of the lunds and lines the inner surface of the rib cage. Pleura
This is an inflammation fo the parietal pleura. Pleurisy
Incomplete expansion or collapse of the lung is called. Atelectasis
Air is the thorax is also known as. Pneumothorax
This is the presence of blood in the pleural space Homothorax
Exchange of gases between a living organism and its environment. Respiration
Process ov moving air into and out of the lungs Pulmonary ventilation
Exchange of gases between air in the lungs and in the blood is called External respiration
Exchange of gases occuring between the blood and the cells is called Internal respiration
Oxygen used by cells in the process of metabolism is called. Celluar respiration
Name the two phases of breathing. Inspiration or inhalation and expiration or exhalation
Muscles that increase the volume of the thorax are called Inspiratory muscles - these include the diaphragm and the external intercostals
What muscles contract when we need more forcefull expiration? Expiratory Muscles - when contracted the internal intercostal muscles pull the rib cage inward
Exchange of gases that occurs between blood in tissue capillaries and the body cells is called. Internal respiration
This device is used to easure the amount of air exchanged in breathing Spirometer
Each normal inspiration and each normal expiration is called. Tidal volumef(TV)
The larges amount we breath out in one expiration is known as. Vital capacity (VC)
The amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled AFTER expiring the tidal volume is called Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)
The amount of air that can be forcibly inspired over and above normal inspiration Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)
The air that remains in the lungs after the most forecul expiration is called. Residual volume (RV)
How many breaths do we normally taken when at rest and not moving in a minute? 12 to 20
What can influence respiration by sending nerve signals that affect the function of the respiratory centers of the brainstem? Cerebral cortex
What are the sensory receptors called that are sensitive to increase in blood carbon dioxide level and decreases in blood oxygen levels? Chemoreceptors
Where are chemoreceptors located? In the carotid and aortic bodies.
This refers to a normal respiratory rate. Eupnea
This is very rapid and deep respirations Hypercentilation
This is very slow and shallow respirations Hypoventilation
This is labored or difficult breathing Dyspnea
Dyspnea that is relieved by moving into an upright or sitting position is called. Orthopnea
This is breathing stopped for a period of time regardless of cause. Apnea
Cycles of alternating apnea and hyperventilation are called? Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR)
Failure to resume breathing is called. Respiratory arrest
Acute inflammation of the bronchi bronchitis
acute inflammation of the lungs in which the alveoli and bronchi become plugged with thick fluid Pneumonia
Chronic bacillus infection and his highly contagious Tuberculosis (TB)
This involves restriction of the alveoli Restrictive pulmonary disorders
This is the progressive irreversible obstruction of expiratory air flow. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
Chronic inflammation of the bronchi and bronchioles Chronic bronchitis
Air becomes trapped within alveoli and causes them to enlarge. Emphysema
Recurring spasms of the smooth muscle in the walls of the bronchial air passages. Asthma
Surgical procedure where only the affected love of lung is removed Lobectomy
Surgical procedure where the entire lung is removed Pneumonectomy
Created by: stainedglassmiss



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