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Chpter 14

Anatomy - - Circulation of the Blood

Arteries Distribute blood through the body
Tunica Externa Outer layer of veins and arteries made of connective fibers so they do not burst under pressure
Tunica Media Smooth inner layer of veins and arteries
Tunica Intima Most inner layer of veins and arteries made of a single layer of squamous epithelia cells
Endothelium Squamous Epithelia cells in the tunica intima
Precapillary spincters Guard entrances to the capillaries and determine how much blood will flow into each capillary bed.
Arteries and Arterioles Distribute blood from the heart to capillaries
Venules and veins Collect blood from capillaries and return it to the heart
Arteriosclerosis Hardening of the arteries restricting the flow of blood through them.
Ischemia Is the result of the flow of blood slowing down too much.
Necrosis Tissue death
Gangrene Necrotic tissue that has decayed
Atherosclerosis Blockage of arteries by lipids and other matter (plaque)
Cerebrovasular Accident (CVA) Brain aneurysm or stroke
Varicose veins Are caused by blood pooling in the vein rather than continuing to the heart.
Hemorrhoids (piles) Are varicose veins of the rectum.
Phlebitis Vein inflammation
Thrombophlebitis Acute phlebitis caused by clot formation.
Hepatic Portal Circulation Route of blood flow through the liver.
Spleen, stomach, pancreas, gallbladder, and intestines All blood flows into the liver from these organs and is filtered.
Two small umbilical arteries and a single umbilical vein Make up the umbilical cord
Umbilical vein Carries oxygenated blood tp the fetus
Umbilical Artery Carries oxygen poor blood from the fetus
Dectus Venosus Allows blood returning from the placenta to bypass the immature liver of the fetus and empty into the inferior vena cava
Foramen Ovale Shunts blood from the right atrium directly into the left atrium
So-called hole in the heart is caused from? The ductus arteriosus not closing properly upon the birth of the fetus.
The Ductus Arteriousus Connects the aorta and the pulmonary artery in a fetus.
Blood pressure Is the "push" of blood as it flows through the circulatory system.
Blood Pressure Gradient The difference between any two blood pressures.
Blood volume,strength of heart contractions, heart rate, blood viscosity all do what? Affect blood pressure.
Polycythemia is caused when red blood cells increase beyond normal. Which in turn increases blood pressure and blood viscosity.
Peripheral resistance Describes any force that acts against the flow of blood in a blood vessel.
Vasomotor mechanism Adjustment of muscle tensioin in vessel walls to control blood pressure and thus blood flow.
Central venous pressure Venous blood pressure within the right atrium and influences the pressure that exists in the large peripheral veins.
When feeling someones "pulse" you are actually feeling? An artery expanding and then recoiling
Superficial Temporal Artery is located? Front of the ear on the face.
Carotid Artery is located? In the neck.
Axillary artery is located? In the armpit.
Brachial Arter is located? At the bend of the elbow.
Radial Artery is located? At the wrist.
Femoral Artery is located? In the groin.
Popliteal Artery is located? Behind the knee.
Dorsalis Pedis Artery is located On the front surface of the foot, below the bend of the ankle joint.
Hypertension occurs? When Blood pressure is above 140/90.
Circulatory shock is? Failure of the circulatory system to adequately deliver oxygen to the tissues.
Cardiogenic Shock is? The heart can no longer pump blood effectively, blood flow to the tissues decreases or stops.
Hypovolemic shock is? loss of blood in the blood vessels.
Anaphylactic Shock is. Resulting from an acute allergic reaction called anaphylaxis.
Septic shock is? Resulting from complication of septicemia, a condiction in which infectious agents release toxins into the blood.
Created by: stainedglassmiss