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Chapter 15

The Autonomic Nervous System and Visceral Reflexes

ANS regulates .. ...fundamental life sustaining functions
ANS manages .. ..processes responsible for homeostasis and survival
ANS is a visceral ... ..motor nervous system
ANS controls... ..glands, cardiac muscle, and smooth muscle
ANS target organs are.. ..viscera of the thorax and abdomino-pelvic cavities, body wall, and skin
Visceral reflex unconscious, automatic, stereotyped response to stimuli
Reflex Arc Receptors  afferent neurons to the CNS  interneurons in the CNS  efferent neurons  effectors
The SNS and PNS often innervate.. ...the same target organs and may have cooperative or contrasting effects on them
Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) Adapts the body for physical activity (fight-or-flight)
SNS .Occurs when involved in arousal, exercise, competition, stress, danger, trauma, anger, and fear
Parasympathetic Nervous System (PNS) It has a calming effect on body functions (resting and digesting)
PNS It is associated with reduced energy expenditure and normal body maintenance
Autonomic tone the balance between the SNS tone and PNS tone which shifts according to the body’s changing needs
ANS components nuclei in the hypothalamus and brainstem, motor neurons in the spinal cord, peripheral ganglia, cranial and spinal nerves
Preganglionic fiber axon that leads from a soma in the brainstem or spinal cord to the autonomic ganglion
Postganglionic fiber axon of a soma in the ganglion that goes to the target cells
Synapse is between .. ...Pre and Post neurons in the ganglion
SMS innervates.. ..skeletal muscle and is voluntary
SMS uses... nerve fiber from the CNS to the effector and has no ganglion
The Sympathetic Division (thoraco-lumbar)
Preganglionic fibers SMS somas are in the spinal cord T1-L2, axons go to the sympathetic chain of the paravertebral ganglia
Paravertebral ganglia series of ganglia adjacent to the vertebral from cervical to coccygeal level
Spinal nerve route fibers exit the ganglion and return to a spinal nerve that innervates the skin structures and skeletal muscles
Sympathetic nerve route fibers exit by way of sympathetic nerves which innervate the head and thoracic cavity
Splanchnic nerve route preganglionic fibers pass through the ganglia and synapse in the celiac, superior and inferior mesenteric ganglia which innervate organs of the abdomino-pelvic cavity
Adrenal glands rest on top of the kidneys
The adrenal medulla is stimulated by preganglionic fibers and secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine
The Parasympathetic Division (craniosacral division)
Preganglionic fibers PNS somas are in the brainstem and the spinal cord, their axons travel in cranial nerves III, VII, IX, X and S2-S4 to target organs
Preganglionic fibers end in.. ..terminal ganglia in or near the target organ and synapse with post ganglionic fibers
Enteric nervous system nervous system of the digestive tract
ENS innervates.. ..smooth muscles and glands of the esophagus down to the colon to regulate motility and secretion of enzymes
The SNS and PNS can have.. ..different effects on an single organ
SNS and PNS fibers ... ..secrete different neurotransmitters
Target cells respond .. different ways to a neurotransmitter
Ach from cholinergic fibers is ... ..secreted by all preganglionic fibers and postganglionic fibers of all PNS and the SNS that innervate sweat glands and blood vessels
Muscarinic receptors on cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and gland cells with differing results
Nicotinic receptors on postganglionic cells in autonomic ganglionic, cells of the adrenal medulla and on skeletal muscle cells with excitatory results
Norepinephrine secreted by all SNS postganglionic (adrenergic) fibers
Choligernic Receptors Muscarinic and Nicotinic
Alpha- adrenergic receptors usually excitatory but does inhibit intestinal motility
Beta-adrenergic receptors usually inhibitory, but does excite the cardiac muscle
Sympathetic effects last longer than parasympathetic effects because .. ..Ach is broken down quickly whereas NE can enter the blood stream and last for several minutes
Dual innervation most viscera receive innervation from both divisions
Antagonistic effects oppose each other either at the same effector cells or different effector cells with opposite effects
Cooperative effects SNS and PNS act on different effectors to produce a unified overall effect
ANS opposite effects ... ..on an organ with SNS
The adrenal medulla, pilorector muscles, sweat glands and many BV, have only .. ..SNS fibers
Vasomotor tone baseline sympathetic tone which keeps vessels partially constricted
Increase in firing rate ... ..constricts a vessel by increasing smooth muscle contraction
Decrease in firing rate.. ...dilates a vessel by allowing the smooth muscle to relax
Cerebral cortex the limbic system which is involved in emotions provides a pathway connecting sensory and mental experiences with the ANS
Hypothalamus major control center of the visceral motor system
Midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata house autonomic nuclei, output travels via spinal cord and cranial nerves III, VIII, IX, X
Spinal cord Spinal cord- integrates autonomic reflexes such as urination and defecation
Created by: babyeyes8761



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