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Chapter 14

The Brain and Cranial Nerves

Cerebrum consists of two cerebral hemispheres
Gyri thick folds
Longitudinal fissure deep groove that separates the right and left hemispheres
Corpus callosum thick bundle of nerve fibers that connect the two hemispheres
Cerebellum posterior and inferior to the cerebrum
Transverse cerebral fissure deep groove that separates the cerebrum from cerebellum
Brainstem what is left of the brain
Cortex what is left of the brain
Nuclei deeper masses of gray matter surrounded by white matter
Tracts bundles of axons which connect the parts of the brain and connect to the spinal cord
During the 3rd week the neural plate, which gives rise to neurons and glial cells, sinks and forms a neural groove with raised neural folds
By the 4th week the neural folds have fused creating a hollow neural tube which exhibits 3 dilations which subdivide by the 5th week
Meninges Protect the brain and provide a framework for its arteries and veins
Dural sinuses spaces between the dura mater layers that collect blood
Falx cerebri dura fold that extends into the longitudinal fissure
Tentorium cerebella dura fold that separates cerebellum and cerebrum
Falx cerebella dura fold that separates R and L halves of the cerebellum
Ventricles internal chambers
Cerebrospinal fluid clear, colorless liquid that fills the ventricles, etc. and bathes the external surface of the brain
How is CSF produced? It is produced from blood plasma filtered through the choroid plexus then modified by ependymal cells
Where does CSF flow? CSF flows from choroid plexus in lateral ventricle  through interventricular foramina  3rd ventricle  cerebral aqueduct to 4th ventricle  through apertures  subarachnoid space  arachnoid granulations  dural venous sinuses
What is the purpose of CSF? buoyancy, protection and chemical stability
Why must blood supply be constant? Blood supply must be constant because neurons have a high demand for ATP, thus a high demand for glucose and O2
Blood is a source of... ...bacterial toxins and other harmful agents
What does the brain barrier system regulate? what can enter the tissue fluid of the brain
All nerve fibers connecting the brain to the spinal cord pass through.. ..the medulla oblongota
The medulla contains... ...networks of sensory and motor functions and contains center for life sustaining functions – HR, respirations, BP
The pons contains... ...continuation of reticular formation and several tracts
RF portion contains ... ...nuclei involved in sleep, respiration, and posture
The midbrain contains... ...the cerebral aqueduct, continuation of several tracts, RF and nuclei
Superior colliculi function in visual attention, visual tracking, blinking, etc
Inferior colliculi receive signals from the inner ear and relay them, mediate head turning reflex to sound and the jump when startled
Cerebral peduncles stalks that anchor the cerebrum to the brainstem
Red nucleus fibers go to and from the cerebellum to collaborate in fine motor control
Substantia nigra motor center that relays inhibitory signals to the thalamus to prevent unwanted body movement
Central gray matter involved with controlling the awareness of pain
Reticular formation Gray matter that runs through the brainstem and consists of neural networks which function in somatic motor control, cardiovascular control, habituation, and sleep and consciousness
Somatic motor control muscle tone, balance, posture, integration of signals from the eyes and ears
Cardiovascular control HR, vessel diameter, breathing rate
Habituation brain learns to ignore repetitive unnecessary stimuli
Sleep and consciousness arousal and awareness
The cerebellum functions as... ... the evaluation of some sensory input and monitoring muscle movement, etc.
Cerebellum receives information... ...on the intent to move and the performance and signals if there is a discrepancy so the muscle performance can be adjusted to match the intent
Cerebellum is involved in... ...learning motor skills
Cerebellar peduncles posterior stalks that connect the cerebellum to the pons and midbrain
Thalamus Receives input headed for the cerebral cortex and processes the information before it relays a small portion to the cortex
Plays a key role in motor control by relaying signals from the cerebellum to the cerebrum? Thalamus
Hypothalamus Relays signals from the limbic system to the thalamus
Relays signals from the limbic system to the thalamus? Hypothalamus
(ht)Hormone secretion secretes hormones that control the anterior pituitary gland
(ht) Thermoregulation monitors the body temperature and activate the heat-loss or heat-promoting centers
(ht) Food and water intake regulates sensation of hunger and satiety, stimulate drinking
(ht) Sleep rhythms regulate the rhythms of sleep and waking
(ht) Emotional behavior involved in anger, aggression, fear, pleasure
(ht) Autonomic effects integrating center for HR, BP, and GI activity
Frontal lobe voluntary motor function, motivation, foresight, planning, memory, mood, emotion, social judgment
Parietal lobe receives and interprets signals of the general senses
Occipital lobe contains the visual center of the brain
Temporal lobe hearing, smell, learning
Insula understanding spoken language, taste, integrating information from visual receptors
Projection tracts carry information between the cerebrum and the rest of the body
Commissural tracts cross from one hemisphere to the other
Association tracts connect different regions within a hemisphere
Basal nuclei determines the start and stop of intentional movement
Limbic system center of emotion and learning, includes the hippocampus and amygdala
Hippocampus organizes sensory and cognitive experiences into a unified long-term memory, but has only a short memory
Amygdala involved in emotional memory
Electroencephalogram a recording of brain waves
Brain waves rhythmic voltage changes
Alpha waves occur in the parieto-occipital area when awake but resting
Beta waves occur in the frontal-parietal region during mental activity and sensory stimulation
Theta waves occur in children and drowsy or sleeping adults
Delta waves occur in awake infants and adults in deep sleep
Cognition mental processes by which we acquire and use knowledge
Association areas regions of the cortex where cognition functions
Parietal association area responsible for perceiving and attending to stimuli
Temporal association area identifying stimuli
Frontal association area for planning a response to stimuli
Learning acquiring new information
Memory information storage and retrieval
Forgetting eliminating information
Amnesia defects in declarative memory
Memory consolidation hippocampus plays memory repeatedly to the cerebral cortex to establish long-term memory
Prefrontal cortex the seat of judgment, intent and control over expression of emotions
Amygdala receives information from... ...the senses and mediates responses to the stimuli
Input goes to .. .. the hypothalamus and brainstem to influence somatic and visceral motor systems
Output goes to .. .. the prefrontal cortex to mediate conscious control and expression of the emotions
Primary sensory cortex site where sensory input is first received
Association area- adjacent region where information is interpreted
Special senses location of primary cortex
Vision the occipital lobe
Hearing the temporal lobe
Equilibrium the cerebellum
Taste (gustatory) the parietal lobe
Smell (olfactory) the temporal and inferior frontal lobes
General Senses touch, pressure, stretch, heat, cold, pain
Signals go to.. ..the primary somatosensory cortex
Motor association area where neurons compile a program for muscle contractions of a movement
The program is transmitted to the primary motor cortex.. ..which sends the signal to the brainstem and spinal cord
Wernicke area recognizes spoken and written language
Broca area generates a motor plan for speaking
Aphasia language deficit resulting from lesions in the hemisphere containing the Wernicke and Broca areas
Olfactory N smell; goes to olfactory bulb
Optic N vision; thalamus
Oculomotor N eye movement, eyelid opening, pupil constriction, focusing; midbrain
Trochlear N eye movement; from the midbrain
Trigeminal N touch, temperature, pain from face and masticating; pons
Abducens N lateral eye movement; pons
Facial N taste, facial expression, secretion; pons
Vestibulocochlear N hearing and equilibrium; pons
Glossopharyngeal N taste, senses of the tongue and outer ear, regulation of the BP and respiration, salivation, swallowing, gagging; MO
Vagus N taste, hunger, fullness, GI discomfort, swallowing, speech, decrease HR, bronchoconstriction, GI activity; medulla oblongata
Accessory N swallowing, head, neck, and shoulder movement; SC
Hypoglossal N tongue movement and swallowing; medulla oblongata
Created by: babyeyes8761



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