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AP Government

1st Semester Exam

QuestionAnswer
What is Barron v. Baltimore (1833)? The Supreme Court ruled that the Bill of Rights restrained only the national government and not states and cities.
What is Engel v. Vitale (1962)? The Supreme Court decision holding that state officials violated the First Amendment when they wrote a prayer to be recited by New York's schoolchildren.
What is Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)? The Supreme Court decision holding that anyone accused of a felony where imprisonment may be imposed, however poor he or she might be, has a right to a lawyer.
What is Gitlow v. New York (1925)? The Supreme Court decision holding that freedoms of press and speech are "fundamental personal rights and liberties protected by the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment from impairment by the states" as well as by the federal government.
What is Gregg v. Georgia (1976)? The Supreme Court decision that upheld the constitutionality of the death penalty, stating, "It is an extreme sanction, suitable to the most extreme of crimes." The Court did not, therefore, believe that the death sentence constitutes unusual punishment.
What is Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971)? The Supreme Court decision that established that aid to church-related schools must have a secular legislative purpose, have a primary effect that neither advances nor inhibits religion, and not fosters excessive government entanglement with religion.
What is Mapp v. Ohio (1961)? The Supreme Court decision ruling that the Fourth Amendment's protection against unreasonable searches and seizures must be extended to the states as well as to the federal government.
What is McCleskey v. Kemp (1987)? The Supreme Court decision that upheld the constitutionality of the death penalty against charges that it violated the Fourteenth Amendment because minority defendants were more likely to receive the death penalty than were White defendants.
What is Miller v. California (1973)? The Supreme Court decision that avoided defining obscenity by holding that community standards be used to determine whether material is obscene in terms of appealing to a "prurient interest" and being "patently offensive" and lacking in value.
What is Miranda v. Arizona (1966)? The Supreme Court decision that sets guidelines for police questioning of accused persons to protect them against self-incrimination and to protect their right to counsel.
What is Near v. Minnesota (1931)? The Supreme Court decision holding that the First Amendment protects newspapers from prior restraint.
What is Brown v. Board of Education (1954)? The Supreme Court decision holding that school segregation was inherently unconstitutional becuase it violated the Fourteenth Amendment's guarantee of equal protection.
What is Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857)? The Supreme Court decision ruling that a slave who had escaped to a free state enjoyed no rights as a citizen and that Congress had no authority to ban slavery in the territories.
What is Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992)? A case in which the Supreme Court loosened its standard for evaluating restrictions on abortion from one of "strict scrutiny" of any restraints on a "fundamental right" to one of undue burden" that permits considerably more regulation.
What is Reynolds v. United States (1879)? A Supreme Court of the United States case that held that religious duty was not a suitable defense to a criminal indictment.
What is Miami Herald Publishing Co. v. Tornillo (1974)? A case in which the Supreme Court held that a state could not force a newspaper to print replies from candidates it had criticized, illustrating the limited power of government to restrict the print media.
What is Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978)? A Supreme Court decision holding that a state university could not admit less qualified individuals solely becuase of their race.
What is Red Lion Broadcasting Co. v. Federal Communications Commission (1969)? A case in which the Supreme Court upheld restrictions on radio and television broadcasting. These restrictions on the broadcast media are much tighter than the print media becuase there are only a limited number of broadcasting frequencies available.
What is School District of Abington Township, PA v. Schempp (1963)? A Supreme Court decision holding that a Pennsylvania law requiring Bible reading in schools violated the establishment clause of the First Amendment.
What is Roe v. Wade (1973)? The Supreme Court decision holding that a state ban on all abortions was unconstitutional.
What is Texas v. Johnson (1989)? A case in which the Supreme Court struct down a law banning the burning of the American flag on the grounds that such action was symbolic speech protected by the First Amendment.
What is Reed v. Reed (1971)? The landmark case in which the Supreme Court for the first time upheld a claim of gender discrimination.
What is Scott v. Sandford (1857)? The Supreme Court decision ruling that a slave who had escaped to a free state enjoyed no rights as a citizen and that Congress had no authority to ban slavery in the territories.
What is Zurcher v. Stanford (1976)? A Supreme Court decision holding that a proper search warrant could be applied to a newspaper as well as to anyone else without necessairly violating the First Amendment rights to freedom of the press.
What is Roth v. United States (1957)? A Supreme Court decision ruling that "obscenity is not within the area of constitutionally protected speech or press."
What is Schenck v. United States (1919)? A decision upholding the conviction of a socialist who had urged young men to resist the draft during World War 1. Justice Holmes declared that government can limit speech if the speech provokes a "clear and present danger" of substantive evils.
What is Zelman v. Simmons-Harris (2002)? The Supreme Court decision that upheld a state providing families with vouchers that could be used to pay for tuition at religious schools.
What is Adarnad Constructors v. Pena (1995)? A Supreme Court decision holding that federal programs that classify people by race, even for an obstensibly benign purpose such as expanding opportunities for minorities, should be presumed to be unconstitutional.
What is NAACP v. Alabama (1954)? The Supreme Court protected the right to assemble peaceably in this case when it decided the NAACP did not have to reveal its membership list and thus subject its members to harassment.
What is New York Times v. Sullivan (1964)? This case establishedthe guidelines for determining whether public officials and public figures could win damage suits for libel. To do so, individuals must prove that the defamatory statements were made with "actual malice."
What is Marbury v. Madison (1803)? Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution. It established the Court's power of judicial review over acts of Congress.
What is Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)? A Supreme Court decision that provided a constitutional justification for segregation by ruling that a Louisiana law requiring "equal but separate accommodations for the White and colored races" was constitutional.
What is Korematsu v. United States (1944)? A Supreme Court decision that upheld as constitutional the internment of more than 100,000 Americans of Japanese descent in encampments during World War 2.
What is McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)? A decision that established the supremacy of the national government over state governments. Chief Justice John Marshall and his colleagues held that Congress had certain implied powers in addition to the enumerated powers found in the Constitution.
What is US v. O'Brien (1968)? A decision by the Supreme Court of the United States, which ruled that a criminal prohibition against burning a draft card did not violate the First Amendment's guarantee of free speech.
What is Hazelwood v. Kuhlmeier (1988)? A landmark decision by the Supreme Court of the United States, which held that public school curricular student newspapers that have not been established as forums for student expression are subject to a lower level of First Amendment protection.
What is Tinker v. Des Moines (1969)? A decision by the Supreme Court that defined the constitutional rights of students in U.S. public schools. The Tinker test is still used by courts today to determine whether a school's disciplinary actions violate students' First Amendment rights.
What is Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)? A landmark case decided in which the Supreme Court interpreted very broadly the clause of the Constitution giving Congress the power to regulate interstate commerce, encompassing virtually every form of commercial activity.
What is Craig v. Boren (1976)? The Supreme Court established the "medium scrutiny" standard for determining gender discrimination.
Created by: horsecrazy1104