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WVSOM Anatomy head

Head and neck, part 1

This layer in the scalp is primarily superficial fascia and is deep to the skin connective tissue
The deep aspect of this layer, of the scalp, contains blood vessels and nerves connective tissue
The aponeurosis of the scalp connects what two muscles. Frontalis and occipitalis
What layer of the scalp is not present on the lateral aspect of the head aponeurosis
This layer of the scalp allows the aponuerosis to slide freely over the cranium loose areolar tissue
This is the layer of the scalp closest to the bone pericranium
This layer of the scalp is open, without any interveining septae or muscle compartments, and therefore is an ideal area for the spread of infection loose areolar tissue
If the scalp is injured at the loose areolar tissue, describe the path of infection Veins in the looser areolar tissue connect to emissary veins (that enter the cranium) and then to dipolic veins and intracranial sinuses
This is a process of removing large portions of the scalp from the bone degloving
This area creates a natural separation from the skull loose areolar tissue
This meningeal layer is inseparable except where the venous sinuses exist Dura Mater
The outer layer of the dura mater is the? periosteum (endosteum)
The inner layer of the dura mater is what and what is this layer continuous with meningeal, spinal cord
What manifests pain during injury to head, brain or dura mater dura mater
The infratentorial part of the dura mater is innervated by what cranial nerves C2 and C3
The dural membrane receives innervation from what cranial nerves 3, 10, 2
Vascular headaches, such as migraines generate pain dura mater (vasocontriction or vasodilation)? vasodialation
These structures flank the superior sagittal sinus and look granular (through the dura) lateral lacunae
The ________ __________ act as valves in the channels between the CSF and venous blood arachnoid granulation
These arteries supply the dura and the skull cap and they leave an impression on the inner skull table middle meningeal arteries
Fracture of this bone may lacerate the middle meningeal artery also causing what condition squamous temporal bone, epidural hematoma
An epidural hematoma can place presure on the cortex (increasing or decreasing) internal volume of the cranium and (increasing or decreasing) intracranial pressure decreasing , increasing
what nerve is commonly affected by a rise in intracranial pressure during an epidural hematoma oculomotor nerve
This is the outer, convoluted layer of the cerebral hemispheres cortex
The _______ are the grooves and the ______ are the elevations in the cortex sulci and gyri
This sulcus makes the posterior boundary of the frontal lobes and the anterior boundary of the parietal lobes central sulcus
This lobe is bounded by the lateral sulcus inferiorly parietal lobe
The ________ lobe lies inferiorly to the lateral sulcus temporal
This structure has very fine surface striations cerebellum
This structure is inferior to the cerebellum and is the smooth, elongate portion of the brain brainstem
The_______ connects the brainstem to the cerebellum and lies laterally and ventrally pons
This is the area of the brainstem that lies between the pons and the foramen magnum medulla oblongata
The noncortical, brainstem structures that are rostral to the pons are termed the midbrain
The structure under the cerebellum and rostral to the midbrain diencephalon
The hypophysis (pituitary gland) is separated by this process of the dura mater diaphragm sellae
The optic nerves, optic chaism and the hypopysis (pituitary) are positioned how in terms of the diencephalon rostrally
What two arteries supply the brain internal carotid and vertebral
How does the vertebral artery enter the posterior cranial fossa through the foramen magnum and ascending along the brainstem
These arteries branch off of the vertebral arteries, at the level of the foramen magnum to supply the spinal cord anterior and posterior spinal arteries
This is a branch off the vertebral artery to supply the cerebellum posterior inferior cerebellar artery
The vertebral arteries combine to form this artery basilar
The basilar terminates as these arteries, which supplies the occipital pole and the posteromedial surface of the cerebral hemisphere posterior cerebral a.
This artery branches off of the internal carotid at the level of the optic canal to supply structures in the orbit opthalmic artery
The middles cerebral artery (a branch of the internal carotid) supplies most of the (medial or lateral) surface of the hemisphere lateral
The _______ _______ artery supplies the anteriomedial surface of the hemisphere anterior cerebral
The posterior communicating artery connects what two arteries middle and posterior cerebral
what does the anterior communicating arteries connect anterior cerebral arteries
The collective term for the anastamoses made with the various cerebral arteries is circulus arteriosus or arterial circle of willis
This dural process separates the two hemispheres falx cerebri
This dural process is oriented between the cerebellar hemispheres falx cerebelli
This dural process holds the berebellum in the posterior cranial fossa and lies transversely tentorium cerebelli
The tentorial notch allows what structure to pass from the posterior cranial fossa brainstem
The ________ _______separates the hypophysis from the rest of the brain diaphragm sellae
Between what two meningeal layers do venous sinuses form periosteal and meningeal of the dur
This sinus runs longitudinally from the crista galli to the internal occipital protuberance superior sagittal sinus
This sinus is located on the inferior margin of the falx cerebri inferior sagittal sinus
This sinus lies at the junction of the falx cerebri and tentorium cerebelli straight sinus
Describe the confluence of sinuses where the straight, occipital, transverse and the superior sagittal sinuses meet
the ________sinus lies against the occipital bone occipital
The _________sinus curves around the petrosal part of the temporal bone transverse
The sigmoid sinus (a continuation of the transverse sinus) terminates as what vein internal jugular vein ( at the jugular foramen)
These sinuses lie on either side of the sella turcica and is composed of one or more thin walled venous channels (in an osseodural compartment cavernous sinus (other vessels in the compartment are internal carotid artery, CN 3, 4, 5 (1) , 6
This sinus connects the transverse sinus and the cavernous sinus superior petrosal sinus
The_______ ________ sinus connects the sigmoid and cavernous sinus inferior petrosal sinus
The ___________ sinus connects the two cavernous sinuses intercavernous (this sinus crosses the sella turcica)
In cavernous sinus hypertension with fascial injury, the ________ veins will become pressurized (due to a rupture or aneuysm within the sinus) leading to exophthalmos and a palpable pulse of the globe opthalmic veins
The olfactory nerves, bulb and tracts sit on what structure cribiform plates
The optic nerve exits the ______ canal. What layer of the meniges does it have also extending through this canal optic, dura mater
This is where the optic nerves exchange fibers with each other optic chiasm
the optic chiasm is (ant or post) to the optic canal and (superior or inferior) to the diaphragm sellae and inbtween the 2 internal carotid arteries posterior, superior
(Rostral or caudal) to the optic chiasm is the optic tract caudal
The opthalmic nerve enters the dura on either side of the sella turcica (anterior or posterior) to the posterior clinoid process anterior
The trochlear nerver pierces the dura (anter. or post) to the posterior clinoid process posterior
The _________ nerve runs along the crest of the petrous ridge trigeminal
The trigeminal ganglion is the _______part of the nerve widest--this is sensory ganglion
The Opthalmic nerve (V1) enters what sinus to reach the orbit through the superior orbital fissure cavernous
This nerve enters the foramen rotundum Maxillary nerve (V2)
The ________nerve exits the cranium through the foramen ovale mandibular nerve (V3)
The trigeminal ganlion and the proximal portions of the nerves are enveloped by a ________ ______ which is an excavation of the dura that is lined with arachnoid mater cavum trigeminale
The abducens nerve sits on this bony structure and it passes through the cavernous sinus and this fissure clivus and superior orbital fissure
The facial and vestibulocochlear nerve enter through the _______ _______ _______ which is in the petrous part of the temporal bone internal acoustic meatus
The glossopharyngeal, vagus and accesory nerve enter through the dura that covers this jugular foramen
The spinal roots of the accesory nerve ascend through this structure foramen magnum
The hypoglossal nerve enters through what hypoglossal cancal
Immediately deep to the trapezius muscle lies the splenius capitis muscle
Name the origin and insertion for the splenius capitis ligamentum nuchae/spinous processes of lower cervical and upper thoracic vertebra and origin is the nuchal crest
Deep and more medial to the splenius capitis is this muscle semispinalis capitis muscle
This artery passes through the foramina transversaria of the cervical vertebrae vertebral artery
the vertebral artery passes around the transverse process of (c1 or C2) and courses medially and deeply to enter the C1, foramen magnum
the ________ ______________ _________ is a sheet of connective tissue that links the posterior arch of the atlas to the foramen magnum of the skull posterior atlanto-occipital membrane
This membrane lies between the atlas and axis posterior atlantoaxial membrane
When completing suboccipital release, what membrane is being stretched to relieve tenision and reduce pull on the dura posterior atlantooccipital membrane
This membrane is a continuation of the posterior longitudinal ligament and it connects the anterior arch of the atlas with the posterior aspect of the ______ tectorial membrane, axis
This is the tissue sitting transversely across the dens, connecting the two lateral masses transverse ligament of the atlas
The transverse lig of the atlas holds the dens against the ________ so that the dens will not project into the spinal cord causing injury atlas
This ligament runs vertically from the anterior foramen magnum, through the transverse lig of the atlas and inferiorly, to the posterior aspect of the body of the axis cruciform lig
This lig runs from the ant tip of the dens to the anterior formen magnum apical lig (prevents excessive excursion which may damage the spinal cord
These ligaments extend from the tip of the dens to the lateral margins of the foramen magnum alar ligaments
forceful extension or flexion (such as during a car accicentt) maybe place stress on this structure dens
If the dens is displaced (anteriorly or posteriorly) it will cause pressure on the spinal cord posterior (but in any case of fracture of dens, there may be long term problems until a stable union can occur)
The periorbita is a layer of periosteum lining the ______ and is continous with the ______ mater the orbit, dura
Most of the ocular structures are surrounded by __________ ____ to cushion and stablize the various nerves and vessels within it periorbital fat
This is a clinical condition seen in goiter, grave's hyperthyroidism tumor etc in which the globes (eyes?) bulge anteriorly from the orbit exopthalmos
This is the muscle that elevates the upper eyelid and what CN innervates it levator palpebrae superioris m., CN 3 (oculomotor)
Name the muscle inferior to the superior oblique and its innervation medial rectus, CN3 (oculomotor)
The lateral rectus is innervated by what CN 6, abducens
Name the 3 branches of the opthalmic nerve nasociliary, frontal and lacrimal
The frontal nerve separates into what two branches as it courses over the _______ _______ muscle supratrochelar and supraorbitial, levator palpebrae superioris m.
The supratrochelar nerve exits the orbit superior to the ________ trochlea
the supraorbital n exits through the supraorbital notch/foramen
The lacrimal nerve laterlly (superior or inferior) to the lateral rectus m. superior
The muscles that move the eye are made from the _______ ____ ________ of the head cranial 3 somites
Each of the 3 cranial somites are supplied by different nerves, what nerves are these oculomotor (CN 3) Trochlear (CN 4) which gives rise to superior oblique m. and abducens (CN 6) which gives rise to lateral rectus
What is the job of the lacrimal gland and where does it lie prevent drying out of the conjuntiva and cornea and it lies lateral and in a superior position in the orbit
The superior rectus and superior oblique m. attach to what part of the eye superior part
The trochlea is a fibrocartiliginous ring that allows the ______ _____ muscle to make a sharp turn (posteriolaterally) to reach the eyeball superior oblique m.
the trochlear nerve enters the (proximal or distal) portion of the sup. oblique m. (after following close to the frontal n.( proxmial
This structure is an area of attachment for the 5 rectus muscles (and it is where all the rectus muscles originate) anulus tendineus (common tendonous ring)
What nerve occupies most of the common tendinous ring optic nerve (accompanied by the opthalmic artery)
The superior branch of this nerve lies deep to the superior rectus m. and supples the levator palpebrae superioris m. oculomotor ner
this branch of the oculomotor nerve supplies the inferior rectus, oblique and the medial rectus inferior division of the oculomotor nerve
The ciliary ganglion contains (parasympathetics or sympathetics and the cells bodies of (pre or post ) ganglionic fibers parasym. , postganglionic
a primary sign of intracranial pressure is (constriction or dilation) of the pupil dilation (due to pressure on the oculomotor nerve in which the nerve cannot function to constrict
The oculomotor nerve contains parasympathetics that (constrict or dilates) the pupil constricts
This nerve runs through the anulus and ends up on the medial surface of the proximal 1/3 of the lateral rectus m abducens
This nerve is the major sensory nerve to the eyeball nasocilliary nerve
The first branch of the nasocilliary nerve goes to what structure ciliary ganglion
These nerves branch off the nasociliary nerve and supply sensation to the eyeball long ciliary nerves
The (short or long) ciliary nerves contain postganglionic sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons to the eyeball short
This is another branch of the nasociliary nerve that supplies the skin over the nose infratrochlear nerve
This branch of the nasociliary nerve goes through the anterior thmoidal foramen and supplies the walls of the nasal cavity and the tip of the nose anterior ethmoidal nerve
The outside of the optic nerve is covered by a _______ __________ __________ thick meningeal sheath
Because the optic nerve is covered by 3 meninges this means that _______ ________ ________ extends into the orbit and up to the posterior past of the globe cerebrospinal fluid
If an infection to the eyeball due to a deep penetrating wound is infected, this condition is likely (due to CSF around the optic nerve) meningitis
this is the sole blood supply of the retina central artery of the retina
The opthalmic artery lies (inferolateral or inferomedial) to the optic nerve inferolateral
Occlusion of these vessels wil lead to permanent loss of vision (in that eye) and this is the end artery central artery of the retina
These arteriors supply the remainder of the eyeball, ciliary body and the iris long and short posterior ciliary arteries and anterior ciliary arteries
This is a thick muscle that passes from the brow ridges, superiorly over the frontal bone frontalis muscle
The supraorbital n. a. and v. are lateral to the supratrochlear n. a. and v. True or falso! true
The _________ _______ m surrounds teh eye wit a circular fiber orientation (giving a sphincter like function) orbicularis oculi
The most important function of teh orbicularis oculi is to what? retain the fluid in the exposed area of the eye and spread it to keep the eye from drying out
the _________ _____________ lig attach the oribcularis oculi m and connects the tarsi to the bone medial palpebral lig. (a lateral exisits too but not as prominent)
the __________ __________ is a sheet of connective tissue that connecs the bony margins of the orbit and it has an opening through whihc the globe protrudes. orbital septum -- it is impt in sheilding the orbital contents from the outside and infection
The orbital septum is continuous with this, creating a complete envelope around the orbit periorbital fascia
These condensed fibrous tissues (ontop the orbital septum) stiffen the ipper and lower eyelids upper and lower tarsus
These glands of the eye are located in the upper tarsal plate and have oily secretions tarsal glands
The secretions of the tarsal glands forms a seal b/n what two structures to keep the tears from overflowing eyelid and surface of eye
This sac lies b/n the eyelid and eyeball and keeps the lacrimal fluid (to keep the eye moist) conjunctival sac
The conjunctival sac is lined with conjunctiva, palpebral being on the inner surface of the__________ and the bulbar being on the surface of the _________ eyelid and eyeball
The _________ _______ is the meetin go fthe palpebral and bulbar conjuctiva conjunctival fornix
There are 6-10 of these which connect te lacrimal gland to the superior conjunctival fornix lacrimal ducts
Name the path that tears take after going through the lacrimal ducts/conjunctival sac puncta ---> lacrimal canaliculi ----> lacrimal sac ----> nasolacrimal duct-->interior meatus of the nasal cavity
the inferior oblique m. attaches (anteriorly or posteriorly) and medially to the floor of the orbit and attaches (anterolaterally or posterolaterally) to the eyeball anterior and posterolaterally
these muscles of facial expression are attached to the skin, versus the other striated muscles of the body Facial musculature
What nerve innervates the muscles of the face? facial nerve (CN 7)
Each of the 6 ________ ______ has a mesectodermal portion producing bone as well as a muscular, nerve and aortic arch component pharyngeal arches
This pharygeal arch gives rise to the incus, malleus, masticatory muscles and is associated with the mandibular nerve first arch, or mandibular arch
The ______ pharyngeal arch gives rise to the mimetic muscles, stapes and hyoid bone and is supplied by the facial nerve second or hyoid arch
The ______pharyngeal arch makes the stylopharyngeus muscle and the remaining hyoid bone and is supplied by the glossopharyngeal nerve third arch
The _______ through _______ pharyngeal arches give rise to the pharynx and larynx and the laryngeal cartilages and are supplied by the vagus nerve fourth through sixth
Why can infection to the superficial face spread rapidly (if it enters the submuscular space) The cutaneous nature of the facial muscles allows for only a few attachments to the bone, therefore, infection can spread throughout the face, rapidly.
The ________ _____muscle runs from the zygomatic process to the corner of the mouth (anterior and inferior) zygomaticus major
This is a square shaped muscle that is not in the superficial layer of the face but is part of the mimetic group buccinator
The _________ duct pierces the buccinator muscle to gain access to the oral cavity at the 2nd upper molar parotid
These are the circumferential muscles of the mouth that are designed to keep the fluid from leaking and closing and pursing the lips orbicularis oris
These muscles move the lips up and down levator labii superioris and depressor labii inferioris m.
These muscles of the lips pull at the corners of the lips, such as in a smile or frown levator anguli oris and depressor anguli oris
This duct lies in the middle of the masseter muscle parotid
How are the facial branches named? name a few by their region...temporal, zygomatic, buccal, manidibular and cervical
This facial artery passes on the lateral aspect of the head, near the ear superficial temporal artery
This artery passes anterior to the masseter muscle adn toward the mouth facial artery
The facial artery gives off these branches to supply the upper and lower lips superior and inferior labial artery
The veins of the transverse facial, facial and superficial temporal arteries are more (straight or tortuous) straight (arteries are more tortuous and thick)
The facial artery and vein terminates as the ______ a. and v. at the bridge of the nose angular a. and vein
Created by: SipaP



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