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Life Medieval Towns

Life Medieval Towns Reading Notes ch 4

Where were towns in medieval Europe often located, and why? on/by the banks of waterways, rivers and sea ports because goods often traveled by water -Towns located by rivers had better trading opportunities.
What contributed to the growth of towns in medieval Europe? improvements in agriculture (such as better farming methods) and revival of trade after the downfall of Rome
What rights did a charter give townspeople? the right to govern themselves, make laws, and raise taxes
What were guilds? an organization of people of the same occupation, craft, or trade
Why were guilds established? to maintain high standards, control hours of work, set fair prices, deal with complaints, oversee trade and production of goods
How did a person become a member of a guild? A boy/girl became and apprentice around 12, when they would sign a contract with a master to work for them in return for being taught and housed. After 7 years, they made a masterpiece, and if the guild accepted it, they became members of the guild.
What are some examples of craft guilds in medieval Europe? cloth makers, cobblers, and stonemasons
How did guilds help members and families of members? healing them and their family when they were sick
What role did merchants play in the growth of medieval European towns? ran sizable businesses, looked for trading opportunities, they were powerful and wealthy, sat on town councils
What were merchant fairs like? held a couple times each year, extremely large, goods from all over for sale
How did merchants become the most wealthy and powerful members of towns? Townspeople bought charters, which gave less power to lords. Since the merchants were wealthy and sat on the town council, they were powerful. They also took part in commerce.
How were Jews often mistreated in medieval Europe? Often had their belongings taken away by their lords. Christians fought with them (often backed by the law), Pretty much the only job available was banking which was forbidden to Christians. They couldn't own land.
What did homes in medieval European towns look like? built of wood, narrow, up to four stories high, older houses would lean
Why were the homes of most town dwellers uncomfortable? Rooms were cold, smoky, and dim. Fireplaces were the only source of heat and light. Windows were small, covered with oiled parchment, and didn't let much light through. In poorer families, several families would share a room.
Why was growing up in medieval towns difficult? Half of all children died before becoming an adult.
How were the lives of medieval girls different from those of modern girls? married earlier (as early as 12), were educated in different practices (like weaving and child-caring)
Why were towns in medieval Europe dangerous places? Crooks, robbers, and pickpockets often tried to steal money. There were no street lights at night.
What were two methods for deciding the guilt or innocence of accused criminals in the Early Middle Ages? 1. trials of ordeal, such as throwing them down a well - if they survived, they were innocent, if they drowned or floated, they were guilty. 2. trial by combat - children, women, church members, etc. could choose someone else to fight for them
What were some ways criminals were punished in medieval Europe? being fined, put in the stocks, or being executed by hanging or burning
How did the way in which those accused of crimes were treated begin to improve in the 12th century? Trial began to be based on written and oral evidence instead of ordeal and combat.
Created by: EDies81