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AP Euro Midterm

Renaissance, reformation, exploration, enlightenment, French Revolution, etc.

Renaissance time period 1350-1550
Johann Gutenberg printing press in 1454 created Gutenberg Bible allowed Renaissance and the spread of ideas to occur
the de Medici's oligarchy in Italy during the Renaissance patrons of Brunelleschi who painted the dome of the Florence cathedral famous banking family
Francesco Petrarch father of humanism 1304-1374
Leonardo da Vinci 1452-1519 “Renaissance Man” Mona Lisa, The Last Supper, and Madonna of the Rocks led him to science, engineering, and anatomy
Francesco Sforza enemy of de Medici’s 1401-1466 seized control of Milan in the 1450s used mercenary soldiers (condottiere) to undermine Italy’s independence
printing press invented 1454
Machiavelli publishes The Prince 1513
changing artistic styles oil-based paints rather than tempera (egg-based) paints realistic, 3D perspective naturalism – focus on human body subject matter – more secular order and symmetry status of artists
Ulrich Zwingli 1484-1531 reform movement more radical than Luther’s accepted 2 sacraments disagreed over meaning of communion (God not actually in the food)
Reformation time period 1500s
Martin Luther wrote 95 Theses on the Power of Indulgences created new Protestant religion wrote 2 sacraments German
John Calvin reformer from Switzerland founded Genevan Academy in 1559 popular Protestant religion with the middle and upper classes because of his views on noble privileges
St. Ignatius Loyola 1491-1556 founded the Jesuits or the Society of Jesus in the 1540s wrote Spiritual Exercises missionaries focused on Catholicizing large parts of Eastern Europe
King Henry VIII 6 wives King of England converted England to the Anglican church from Catholicism because Pope Clement II wouldn’t grant an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon (the pope’s cousin)
Luther posts the 95 theses 1517
Act of Supremecy creates Anglican Church in England in 1534
exploration time period 1450-1600
Hernando Cortes conquered the Aztec civilization established a Spanish presence in North America
Ferdinand Magellan Portuguese seamen who sailed under the flag of Spain first person to circumnavigate the world sailed around the tip of South America before dying in the Philippines
Francisco Pizarro successfully conquered the Incan Empire using the same methods as Cortes did with the Aztecs years before
Vasco Nunez de Balboa an expedition across the Isthmus of Panama to discover the Pacific Ocean
Vasco de Gama 1498 – sailed around the Cape of Good Hope to get Indian spices
Columbian Exchange trade of goods between the Old and New Worlds which spread new foods, animals, and diseases
Treaty of Tordesillas devided the world into 2 halves Portugal had East Spain had West
Enlightenment time period 1700s
Voltaire French writer of satire one of the most important who wrote many works 1694–1778
Denis Diderot 1713-1784 French scholar one of the primary editors of the Encyclopedia
Immanuel Kant 1724–1804 built on David Hume’s theories denounced reason as an inaccurate way to think German philosopher
David Hume 1711–1776 Scottish philosopher questioned everything one of the most important figures in skepticism
Jean-Jacques Rousseau 1712–1778 Swiss-French thinker wrote The Social Contract created direct democracy in which all citizens work together to reach an overarching “general will”
French Revolution time period 1789-1815
Napoleon Bonaparte general in the French army leader in the 1799 coup to overthrow the Directory eventual emperor of the French Empire
Robespierre leader of the radical Jacobins chairman of the Committee of Public Safety executed thousands during the Reign of Terror eventually guillotined
Louis XVI French king from 1774-1792 executed in 1793 inherited debt problem and added to it with heavy spending held estates general
Marie Antoinette wife of Louis XVI eventually guillotined the primary symbol of the French royalty’s excess and extravagances
Olympe de Gouges writer proponent of equality for women wrote Declaration of the Rights of Women and the Female Citizen
May 5, 1789 reconvening of the Estates General
June 20, 1789 Tennis Court Oath
1793-94 Reign of Terror
Napoleon's reign (date) 1799-1815
Created by: spschoolstudy