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Isolationism Was the centerpiece of FP for some time. Isolationism ended during WW2 with the creation of the Truman Doctrine (Helping greece and turkey from the soviet union)
Expansionism Pro-American Imperialism First time Jefferson expanded territory in the 1790s 1880s involvement in European imperialism in the Pacific Obligation to expand the American way of life Mission from god = Manifest Destiny
Motivated Misperception Psychological factors can bias actors attidudes, especially towards international actors. emotional "motivated" biases in dealing with a crisis Source of misperception is motivation avoiding great anxiety, guilt, and shame defensive avoidance
Groupthink Group must be cohesive Seeks premature and excessive "concurrence-seeking" More likely to occur if there is an organizational structure present
Functional Specialization applied in large organizations separation of tasks within a system can lead to organizational parochialism
Rational Actor Model Actor-Unified decision maker Objective- Maximization of national interest Process- Rational evaluation of the cost and benifets Result- Value maximizing decision
Organizational Process Model actors- Large organizations objective- maximize org.'s interests process- implementation of SOP result- output of the org's activities
Cuban Missile Crisis 13-day stand of in 1962 that almost involved Nukes Soviet tried to place missiles in cuba JFK decided to use a sea blockade JFK avoided groupthink
Bay of Pigs Unsuccessful invasion of cuban exiles Result of groupthink educated members of the team Presidents must be critical of the CIA
Liberal Idealism application of universal ethics to international relations assumes that anarchy and war can be policed by international organizations Can lead to war (Civil War for example)
Manifest Destiny 19th century belief that the United States was destined to move across the continent Legitimized expansionism
Bureaucratic Political Model actors- Heads of large organizations Objective- Maximize their organizations interest process- Bargining result- Outcome of the bargining FP is a result of the bargaining ability of leaders. compromise might not be the best option
Truman Doctrine Speech in 1947 for the us support of Greece and Turkey Support and defend free people around the world Any aggression will result in fighting began the US containment policy against the soviet union.
Democratic Constraints Belief that democracy has the ability to constrain a ruler (Checks and balances) Public dislikes war in general and holds leaders responsible war damages the economy media is critical of war
Executive Pre-eminence Public generally accepts the leaders decision on foreign policy and going to war. Don't force congress to disagree Only oppose failing wards
War Powers Act War powers resolution 1973 President must inform congress within 48 hours of using troops and forbids use for over 60 days Disregarded by Reagan-El Salvador, Nicaragua, Clinton Kosovo, and by Obama- Libya There is no punishment
Rational Decision Making analyze and rank survey alternatives research process information objectively examine costs and benefits review previously rejected options work out a contingency plan
Stalemate Machine Vietnam War People understand they can't win so they the invest just enough resources to be sure they don't lose
Unmotivated Misperception Decision fit new information into passed views, theories, history, and beliefs to avoid cognitive dissonance. Closed off to new information
Analogous Thinking Using analogies on new situations. Such as using Vietnam Analogy on the Kosovo conflict or Hitler and Mussolini on Korea
Attentive Public the sector that actually understands how the government works Politicians must put a greater focus on them Relevant in foreign policy, the place that nobody cares
Ideology logically coherent nature, history, society, future held by a social group articulated in specific texts call for action specifies a class to initiate it Specifies goals of the state may generate conflicts over time in patterns beliefs and misconc
American Exceptionalism City upon a hill-shining example T. Paine- the old world is broken, we will bet the example of how to fix it Belief to see the US as Unique Blueprint for democracy mission from god
Stereotyped Thinking Stereotypes and expectations cause misconceptions by giving characteristics to certain groups of people and only seeing what is expected US assumed that Soviets hated America after stalins death, even though they were looking for better relations. CW
Cognitive Dissonance beliefs that don't harmonize Try to fix with with... Denial- JFK Bay of Pigs Distortion- German Kaiser got memos but didn't believe Russia would go to war Bush believing there WMD
Defensive Avoidance Coping with stressful decisions procrastination wishful thinking
Defective Decision Making results from groupthink failure to seek expertise no consideration for opposing views failure to consider what might go wrong
Cognitive Biases Patterns of deviation in judgement that occurs in particular situations, leads to irrationality
Thomas Jefferson Secretary of State Didn't want a strong federal government opposed expansionlism/imperialism Ended up buying lousiana, intervening in Santa Domingo, etc. Legitimized using Manifest Destiny
Alexander Hamilton Wanted get rid of the debt by creating federal taxes Saw the weak military as a threat and wanted to increase defense spending
Social Contract Responsibility between the ruled and the rulers Life Liberty and property minimal government to preserve the rights revolution is legitimate if government oversteps their boundaries
Woodrow Wilson Wanted to join the League of Nations but America wasn't ready for it Ideology that constrains a leader
July Crisis 1914, Spark of WWI Germany allied with Serbia, Russia, Austria-Hungry, France, UK Serb assasinated heir to AH AH ultimatum to Serb Declared War Promised to stand by AH Enormous Anxiety Germany didn't want to believe Russia was going to war
Symptoms of Groupthink pressure towards uniformity overestimation of group power close-mindedness
Bush Doctrine 9/11 legitimized preemptive strikes vs containment Revisionists states are not allowed to have WMD With or against us mentality evangelical policy- take out evil doers before they attack us
Crusading Liberalism Democracy is pushed using force Failure to understand the ethnic and national conflicts that divide a state and overestimate transformation possibilities.
Pragmatic Liberalism Opposite of Crusading liberalism
Transatlantic Divide differing American and European views on power
Exceptionalist Isolationism City on a hill Strengthen by geography no need for trade
Interpretive Leadership Stresses the role of a president's ability to shift national interest and tradition Truman and Bush interpreted international situations as "ways of life" which delegitimized isolationism
People's Democracy A nation where suffrage is universal. Institutions are run freely and by men who wish to do so Implies that the president has a strong dependency on the public and is less likely to use force
Erroneous Expectations The human mind sees what it expects to see Norway didn't expect germany to invade, they thought they were heading towards the UK 9/11, CIA thought there would be an attack abroad, not at home. Results in states drawn into conflict
Quagmire Myth Getting sucked into a conflict by saying "one more step" Leaders see it as a stalemate, they knew they couldn't win but escalated because they feared to lose
Executive Latitude Public grants the president latitude in America's FP People don't care about FP in exit pulls
SOP's bureaucracies tend to use in order to improve efficiency independent implementation of SOP's can create counter productive procedures Cuban Missile Crisis- Navy created their own blockade instead of listening to the Pentagon's orders
Mind Guard someone who protects the group from problematic information oppresses conflicting views Lawrence Lindsay was forced to leave the whitehouse when he estimated the iraq war would cost over 200b
Tuesday Lunch Group LBJ prefered the tuesday lunch group vs the formal NSC meetings. Tolerated very little dissent views became the focus point of FP
Cooperative internationalism active engagement in FP that emphasizes diplomacy and multilateral collaboration over military confrontation
Policy Influentials People who are knowledgeable about foriegn affairs and have access to decision makers
Lockean Liberalism Humans are equal and rational thinkers L+L+PH One foundation of Exceptionalism
Divine Election America is God's people Guided American Foreign Policy till the present Bush rhetoric
Munich Analogy Analogy based on the Munich agreement Chamberlain appeased Hitler but it didn't work out Proper response is resistance Most powerful analogy in US FP
Consequentialism The consequence of one's conduct are the ultimate basis for any judgement of that conduct.
Created by: rayrraff
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