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h&w test 3

health and wellness exam 3, chs 10-13

Stressor A specific physical or psychological event, condition, or demand that triggers stress
Stress The collective physical and emotional changes an individual experiences in response to a stressor
Homeostasis A stable state of physiological functioning (metabolic equilibrium) actively maintained by complex biological mechanisms that operate via the autonomic nervous system
Acute stress A state of stress experienced in response to an immediate perceived threat, real or imagined
Stress (fight-or-flight) response Physiological changes that occur in reaction to a stressor that prepare an individual for a physical response (to fight or to flee)
Autonomic nervous system (ANS) Branch of the nervous system that provides unconscious control of basic body processes; consists of two divisions, sympathetic and parasympathetic
Sympathetic nervous system A division of the autonomic nervous system that quickly generates the fight-or-flight response in reaction to a perceived threat; it accelerates key body processes to prepare the body for physical action
Parasympathetic nervous system A division of the autonomic nervous system that balances the actions of the sympathetic nervous system by slowing body processes, returning the body to homeostasis once a stressor has passed
Adrenalin A hormone secreted by the adrenal glands, which sit on top of the kidneys; it binds to cells in the body and helps trigger the immediate changes of the fight or flight response, including increases in heart rate, blood pressure, and energy supplies
Cortisol A hormone secreted by the adrenal glands; it is secreted in response to stress and helps trigger the changes of the fight or flight response, including increased blood glucose, altered immune function, and reduction in nonessential body functions
Oxytocin A hormone that acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain; in women, it facilitates dilation of the cervix during labor and the letdown reflex during breastfeeding; it also facilitates trust, empathy, and social bonding
Fear Feeling anxious or apprehensive about a possible or probable situation or event
Anxiety A persistent state of worry, fear, unease, and nervousness not directed at any particular threat; can be a normal part of the reaction to stress or, if excessive, may indicate a psychological disorder
Phobia A persistent irrational, intense fear of a specific object, activity, or situation; a form of anxiety disorder
Personality A collection of emotional, intellectual, and social qualities or traits that characterize an individual
Type A personality A personality type characterized by traits of urgency, impatience, hostility, excessive competitiveness, and drive for success
Type B personality A personality type characterized by traits of relaxation, patience, and adaptability
Transactional model of stress A four-step framework for evaluating an individual’s coping process for a stressor; an individual evaluates the stressor and her or his coping resources before deciding how to respond and then whether the response was successful
Attribution theory A theory of stress focused on how individuals explain success or failure after a stressful event—whether the outcome is attributable to external or internal factors
Yerkes-Dodson law The empirical relationship between stress (arousal) and performance, in which some stress is beneficial but too much is detrimental to performance; also called the inverted U hypothesis
Chronic stress Stress that lasts a long time or occurs frequently
General adaptation syndrome A model of the body’s response to chronic stress; the three phases are alarm (fight-or-flight response), resistance, and exhaustion
Eustress A positive stressor that enhances physical or mental functioning; it is typically short-term and may feel exciting or motivating
Distress A negative stressor that causes emotional pain, anxiety, or injury; it may be short- or long-term and cause anxiety and other unpleasant feelings
Allostatic load Cumulative physical damage of chronic exposure to the stress response, especially the effects of stress hormones
Passive communication A communication style in which the goal is to avoid confrontation; the individual may allow his or her own rights to be violated by failing to express honest feelings, beliefs, or thoughts
Aggressive communication A communication style in which the goal is to get what one wants, no matter the cost to others; characterized by clear expression of needs and desires but lack of consideration for the feelings or welfare of others
Assertive communication A communication style in which the primary goal is to solve a problem, finding a balance between one’s own needs and the needs of others; characterized by clear expression of needs and wants in a way that is respectful and sensitive to others
Insomnia Persistent problems falling asleep or staying asleep
Spirituality A person’s system of beliefs and values, feelings of connectedness to self and others, and experience of finding meaning and purpose in life
Relaxation response A physiological state of deep rest that reverses the body’s responses to stress
Progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) A relaxation method that involves tensing and relaxing muscles of the body in sequence
Meditation A broad group of self-directed practices that quiet and focus the mind and relax the body
Visualization For stress management, a technique involving using all the senses to imagine a place or scene that is comfortable, soothing, and relaxing
Depression A psychological disorder characterized by feelings of sadness and hopelessness, loss of interest in activities that were once enjoyable, poor concentration, and physical symptoms such as fatigue, sleeping problems, and poor appetite
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) Any disease that affects the heart (cardio) and/or blood vessels (vascular)
Coronary artery disease (CAD) Disease of the arteries of the heart characterized by the build-up of fats and other substance and reduction of blood flow
Atherosclerosis Build-up of plaque in the inner lining of arteries, leading to narrowing, reduction of blood flow, and possible blockage
Arteriosclerosis A chronic disease characterized by abnormal thickening and hardening of the arteries, resulting in loss of elasticity
Angina pectoris Chest pain caused by a reduced blood supply to the heart
Heart attack (myocardial infarction) Damage or death of heart muscle due to insufficient blood supply, usually caused by a blockage in a coronary artery that deprives part of the heart of oxygen
Arrhythmia Abnormal heart rhythm
Cardiac arrest Sudden temporary or permanent cessation of heartbeat
Stroke Interruption of the blood and oxygen supply to part of the brain; caused by a blocked artery (ischemic stroke) or a ruptured artery (hemorrhagic stroke)
Transient ischemic attack (TIA) Temporary blockage of one or more arteries in the brain; doesn’t typically cause lasting damage but is a warning sign for a full-blown stroke
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) Damage or dysfunction of arteries outside the heart, most commonly in the legs; usually caused by atherosclerosis and resulting in reduced blood flow
Systolic blood pressure Force of blood on the vessel walls during the contraction of the heart; the top number in a blood pressure reading
Diastolic blood pressure Force of blood on the vessel walls when the heart is a rest (between contractions); the bottom number in a blood pressure reading
Hypertension Sustained high blood pressure
Heart failure A condition in which the heart is unable to pump blood at a sufficient rate or volume, resulting in insufficient blood flow to the body’s organs and tissues and, in some cases, fluid build-up
Cholesterol A fat, waxy substance that is produced by the liver and consumed from animal products; excess cholesterol in the bloodstream can be deposited on artery walls
Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) A type of lipoprotein that circulates in the blood and deposits cholesterol on artery walls, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease; also known as “bad cholesterol”
High-density lipoproteins (HDL) A type of lipoprotein that circulates in the blood and carries excess cholesterol back to the liver for elimination from the body; also known as “good cholesterol”
Triglycerides The most common form of fat in foods and in the body; high blood levels of triglyceride increases risk for cardiovascular disease
Metabolic syndrome A group of risk factors linked to overweight and obesity that increase the chance of having heart disease, diabetes, and stroke; large waistline, low HDL, and elevated triglycerides, fasting blood sugar, and blood pressure
Cancer A group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells
Tumor Mass of cells with no physiological function that arises from uncontrolled cellular growth; may be benign or malignant
Benign Non-cancerous
Malignant Cancerous
Metastasis The spread of cancerous cells from the site of the original disease to other parts of the body
Carcinogen A substance or agent that causes cancer
Chemotherapy Treatment involving the use of chemical agents (drugs) to kill cancer cells
Radiation therapy The use of high-energy rays to kill or damage cancer cells to keep them from growing or spreading; also known as radiation therapy
Diabetes mellitus A disorder of carbohydrate metabolism characterized by inadequate production or use of insulin, leading to elevated blood glucose levels
Insulin A hormone produced and secreted by the pancreas that circulates in the blood and is essential to glucose absorption by cells
Hyperglycemia Excessively high blood glucose levels
Hypoglycemia Abnormally low blood glucose levels
Type 1 diabetes Form of diabetes characterized by little or no insulin secretion; an autoimmune disease that occurs when the body’s immune system destroys the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas
Type 2 diabetes The most common form of diabetes, characterized by impaired insulin use by the cells and, in some cases, insufficient insulin production
Gestational diabetes The form of diabetes in which high blood glucose levels occur during pregnancy
Pre-diabetes A condition characterized by blood glucose levels that are above normal but not yet high enough to be classified as diabetes
Infectious disease A disease that is transmissible from person to person through direct or indirect means; infection refers to invasion and multiplication of an organism; symptomatic disease follows if the body cannot quickly eliminate the pathogen
Pathogen A specific causative agent of infectious disease; examples include virus, bacteria, protozoa, and fungi
Immune system Complex network of organs, tissues, and cells that produce the immune response and defend the body from disease-causing agents
Antigen Protein molecules on the surface of infectious agents that are recognized as foreign by the immune system and that trigger the immune response
Antibody Molecule produced by the immune system that binds to a specific antigen and marks it for destruction
Lymphatic system Network of vessels and organs that returns fluid to the circulatory system; produces, activates, and transports infection-fighting cells; and plays a role in disposing of foreign material and cellular debris
Vaccine A preparation of weakened or killed microorganisms or inactivated toxins that is administered to stimulate immunity; it elicits an immune response that offers long-lasting protection against that particular antigen
Acute infection An infection that develops rapidly and lasts for a short period; characterized by incubation, prodrome (beginning of symptoms), illness, and convalescence and recovery
Chronic infection A prolonged infection that continues beyond the time when the immune system would reasonably be expected to clear the infection from the body
Latent infection An infection that lies dormant in the body for a period of time but may recur under certain circumstances
Antibiotic A compound that is used to treat bacterial infections by killing the bacteria or inhibiting its growth
Influenza A highly infectious respiratory disease caused by an influenza virus; the “flu”
Herpes A family of viruses that includes those responsible for chicken pox, cold sores, mononucleosis, and genital herpes; herpes viruses have the ability to establish lifelong latent infections
Meningitis Inflammation of the meninges, the membranes that surround the brain the spinal cord
Sexually transmitted infection (STI) An infection that is primarily spread through person-to-person sexual contact
Trichomoniasis Sexually transmitted infection caused by the protozoa Trichomonas
Chlamydia Sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis
Gonorrhea Sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) Infection of the reproductive system in women, typically caused by untreated chlamydia or gonorrhea; can result in reproductive system damage and infertility
Syphilis A multi-stage sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum
Genital herpes A chronic or latent sexually transmitted infection caused by the herpes simplex virus and characterized by genital sores
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection A sexually transmitted viral infection that can cause genital warts and cellular changes that lead to cervical and other cancers; can be a chronic infection
Viral hepatitis Inflammation of the liver caused by infection with one of the hepatitis viruses; can become a chronic infection
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) The virus that causes HIV infection and AIDS; infects and destroys cells of the immune system
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) A disease of the immune system characterized by a severe reduction in the number of CD4+ cells, leaving an individual susceptible to other infections and diseases; the final stage of HIV infection
Drug A chemical substance that alters the structure of function of the body
Psychoactive drug A drug that alters a person’s state of mind or consciousness
Intoxication The state of being mentally affected by a drug
Addictive behavior A behavior or habit that is out of control and has a serious impact on an individual’s life; characterized by craving and compulsive use
Drug misuse Intentional or unintentional use of a medication in ways other than as directed or intended
Drug abuse A harmful pattern of drug use that persists despite negative consequences; may involve continual or intermittent use of a drug
Drug addiction (dependence) A chronic disease characterized by compulsive ongoing use of a drug despite serious consequences
Ethyl alcohol The intoxicating psychoactive drug found in alcoholic beverages; also called alcohol
Binge drinking Drinking alcohol to the point of intoxication; usually involves consuming 5 or more drinks for men or 4 or more drinks for women in a period of 2 hours or less
Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) A measure of intoxication; the amount of alcohol in the blood in terms of weight of alcohol per unit volume of blood, expressed as a percentage
Cirrhosis A liver disease in which cells are replaced by fibrous scar tissue; can be caused by excessive long-term alcohol use
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) A range of birth defects that can occur in an infant exposed to alcohol before birth
Alcohol abuse A pattern of drinking that is harmful to one’s health, results in behavior that is harmful to others, or impairs an individual’s ability to meet school, work, and family responsibilities
Alcohol dependence Chronic pathological use of alcohol despite repeated and serious consequences; usually characterized by tolerance and withdrawal; alcoholism
Nicotine Poisonous, addictive psychoactive drug found in tobacco
Environmental tobacco smoke Smoke that enters the atmosphere from being exhaled by a smoker and by the burning end of a cigarette, cigar, or pipe; also called secondhand smoke
Sidestream smoke Smoke that enters the atmosphere from the burning end of a cigarette, cigar, or pipe
Mainstream smoke Smoke that enters the atmosphere by being exhaled by a smoker
physiological responses of the fight or flight response release of epinephrine, cortisol and pain-dulling endorphins; increased heart rate and breathing, pupils dilate, blood vessels constrict
#1 stressor for American adults money
which gender tends to be more stressed? why? men; biological and behavioral responses, cultural differences in what is gender-appropriate, women secrete more oxytocin, testosterone overrides oxytocin
attribution theory: when we fail we're likely to attribute our failure to an external force
attribution theory: when others fail we're likely to attribute others' failure to a cause within them
transactional model of stress primary appraisal (will it hurt), secondary appraisal (can i control it), coping (what to do about it), reappraisal (is the stress still there)
#1 stress management technique for Americans music
top 3 chronic diseases; which has the highest mortality rate CVD, cancer, and diabetes; CVD
explain atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis atherosclerosis is a form of arteriosclerosis
explain blood pressure in terms of systolic and diastolic systolic is the top number, normal is 120/80, over 140/90 is hypertension
optimal range of total cholesterol <200mg/dl
optimal range of LDL <100mg/dl
optimal range of HDL >50mg/dl, the higher the better
optimal range of triglycerides <150mg/dl
4 risks of cancer genes (5-10%), age, gender, ethnicity
general definition for diabetes A metabolic disorder characterized by problems with the body’s production or use of insulin
Type 1 diabetes Autoimmune disease attacking and destroying the insulin producing cells of the pancreas
Type 2 diabetes Insulin Resistance; Cells don’t respond to insulin
5 ways to prevent CVD, cancer and diabetes healthy diet, physical activity, healthy weight, control cholesterol, avoid tobacco, etc.
antigen infectious agents that are recognized as foreign, triggering the immune response
antibody binds to a specific antigen, marking it for destruction
curable STDs trichomoniasis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis
vaccine-preventable STDs HPV, hepatits B
(chronic and) incurable STDs HPV, genital herpes, HIV, hepatitis B
incubation stage of infection time that pathogen infects
prodrome stage of infection first sign/symptom
illness stage of infection specific signs/symptoms
convalescence acute symptoms subside
caffeine competitive inhibitor of adenosine; safe to take in 3-6mg/kg
5 effects of alcohol intoxication, fatty liver, hepatitis, cirrhosis, hypertension
cirrhosis death of liver tissue
how does creatine work ATP + Cr <-> ADP + PCr
why supplement beta-alanine increases carnosine levels, enhance buffering capacity
3 BCAAs leucine, isoleucine, valine
whey soluble, so digests rapidly
Created by: selfstudy08