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Anatomy. Final.

The kidneys are considered retroperitoneal organs. What does this mean? They lie outside the peritoneum which lines the abdominal cavity.
The outer portion of the kidney substance is known as the: cortex
The cone shaped structures located in the medulla of the kidney are known as renal pyramids
The structure that empties immediately into the ureters is called the renal pelvis
What is the functional unit of the kidney Nephron
The site of filtration is known as Glomerulus
After passing through the ascending loop of Henle the filtrate passes into which part of the tubular system Distal convoluted tubule
Nephrons that have short loops which do not extend deeply into the medulla are called cortical nephrons.
9. All of the cells and tissues through which the filtrate must at the glomerulus are known collectively as the : filtration membrane.
Blood leaves the glomerulus through the efferent arteriole.
Renin is secreted from the area known as the macula densa or juxtaglomerular apparatus
12. The proximal and distal convoluted tubules are located in which portion of the kidney? Cortex
Which structures line the proximal tubules? Microvilli
When substances move from the tubular lumen into the bloodstream it is known as: tubular reabsorption.
When substances move from the blood stream into the tubular lumen it is known as tubular secretion.
The part of the total cardiac output that passes through the kidneys is called the: renal fraction
The part of the plasma that is filtered in the glomerulus each minute is called the filtration fraction.
The amount of filtrate produced each minute is known as: glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
Net filtration pressure in the glomerulus is approximately 10 mm Hg
The hydrostatic pressure driving filtration in the glomerulus is due to: blood pressure.
The two forces that oppose filtration pressure in the glomerulus are colloid osmotic pressure and capsular pressure
The stress hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine have what effect on GFR? Decrease it.
Approximately how much of the filtrate is reabsorbed? 99%
Most of the energy for reabsorption of larger molecules is provided by the movement of which ion across the proximal tubule membrane? Sodium
Define osmosis . Movement of water from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration.
Which portion of the loop of Henle is highly permeable to water? Thick descending limb
What happens to solutes in the thick ascending limb? Actively transported out of lumen
Is the renal medulla more or less concentrated than the fluid in the loop of Henle More
What effect does increasing the water permeability of the distal tubule and collecting duct have on urine volume? It decreases volume
The modification of molecules by the liver to increase their water solubility is called: conjugation
Changes in blood pressure are detected by baroreceptors
Renin causes the conversion of what substance into Angiotensin I? Angiotensinogen
Angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II by: angiotensin converting enzyme
Angiotensin II causes the release of which hormone from the adrenal gland? aldosterone
The Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone system has what effect on blood pressure? raises it
Anti-diuretic hormone is released from the: posterior pituitary gland
What effect does ADH have on urine production? decrease
What effect does ADH have on blood pressure? increase
Which hormone is involved in diabetes mellitus? insulin
Insufficient ADH production can result in a disease called: diabetes insipidus
Glomerular filtration rate is often measured using a substance called: inulin
What is tubular load? The amount of a substance that is filtered.
Define tubular maximum The amount of a substance that can be reabsorbed by the tubules
If tubular load exceeds tubular maximum what will be the result with regard to the urine. Some of the substance will be secreted.
If tubular maximum exceeds tubular load what will be the result with regard to the urine. None of the substance will be excreted.
What tubes lead from the kidneys to the bladder? Ureters
What tube carries the urine from the bladder to the outside of the body? Urethra
Which urethral sphincter muscle is under voluntary control? External
Define micturition Elimination of urine from the bladder.
What effect does aging have on the number of glomeruli? They decrease.
Created by: erinjoseph