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UCF ZOO3733C Test 10

With SamSam

QuestionAnswer
Hypospadias The ext. urethral orifice is not where it is supposed to be. The ext. urethral orifice is inf. to the normal location.
Phimosis Foreskin cannot be withdrawn, requires circumcision.
Paraphimosis Foreskin cannot be drawn over the glans, requires circumcision.
Variocele Incompetency of the pampiniform plexus and can lead to pain and infertility.
Spermadocele, Hydrocele, & Hematocele (sperm, water, & blood) Occur if the processus vaginalis is left open.
Vaginismus Involuntary contraction bulbospongiosus that leads to painful intercourse.
Hysterectomy Removal of the uterus. The ureters are in danger when the uterine a. is cut.
Episiotomy Performed during childbirth when the baby’s head is too large to comfortably fit without tearing the perineal m. of the mother. The perineum and vaginal wall are cut.
Hysterosalpingography The contrast medium is injected into the uterine tubes to view whether or not they are continuous with the ovaries.
Pelvic Inflammatory disease Inflammation of the Fallopian tubes and can cause loss of the epithelium in the tubes. This can lead to infertility.
Ectopic pregnancy A fertilized egg implants somewhere other than the uterus. If the egg implants in the Fallopian tube it can cause the tube to rupture. It causes severe abdominal pain.
Leiomyomas/Fibroids -smooth m. tumors of the uterus. They are the most common benign tumors in women. They are freq. in women >30 and rare in women <18. They typically regress after menopause.
McDonald’s surgery Cervix is tied at 14 wks pregnant and untied at 36 wks. The suture is sup. to outer surface of cervix near level of internal os in intervals (for individuals with scarring).
Cervical Incompetence the internal os is incompetent. This can lead to repeated 2nd semester miscarriages. It can be caused by infection, hypertension, diabetes, etc. Treatment is Shirodkar/McDonald’s surgery.
Vaginal Prolapse The uterus drops lower when uterine support is lost.
Retroverted Uterus Associated with pain during intercourse, pain during menstruation, back pain, spontaneous abortion (miscarriage), and sterility or it could be asymptomatic.
Ovarian Tumors Can contain other tissue types, for example teratomas (germ cell tumors) of the ovary.
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) Most common female endocrine disorder. It is characterized by increased LH and androgens, decreased FSH, follicular cysts, obesity, no menstruation, excessive hairiness, and infertility. It can be caused by insulin insensitivity.
Follicular Cysts of the Ovary Unruptured follicles that cause pain when they do rupture.
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Enlarged prostate (not cancerous) that causes the urge to urinate regularly.
Atonic or Hypotonic bladder An enlarged bladder that does not empty normally due to denervation or obstruction. Incontinence occurs because of overfilling.
Injury to the Pelvic floor and Perineum This can be caused by childbirth. The levator ani m. is most often injured. This can alter the position of the bladder and the uterus and may cause urinary stress incontinence.
Non-Neoplastic Ovarian Cysts The most common cause ovarian enlargement (except in pregnancy – then luteal cysts).
Cleft Palate Occurs when the lat. palatine processes, nasal septum and/or med. Palatine process fail to fuse properly. Post. is more common than ant. Steroid use in mother can lead to it.
Cleft Lip The maxillary and med. nasal process fail to fuse. This is the most common congenital malformation of the head.
Salivary Gland Stones (sialolithiasis) The most common disease of the salivary gland. Submandibular gland is most susceptible.
Mumps Causes an inflammation of the parotid gland and if severe can lead to Bell’s palsy (because of compression of CNVII) and infertility (because of cross-rxn of Ab).
Lingual Thyroid Present on the foramen cecum and can produce thyroid hormones.
Bell’s palsy A form of facial paralysis resulting from a dysfunction of theCNVII that results in the inability to control facial muscles on the affected side.
Macroglossia enlargement of the tongue. It can be caused by hypothyroidism, amyloidosis, and cretinism.
Paralysis of CNXII (Hypoglossus n.) leads to the tongue being stuck towards the side that is damaged.
Scurvy Vitamin C deficiency that leads to bleeding of the gums and other cartilage issues.
Nasal Septal Deviation Can block the sinuses and cause infection.
Sinusitis Inflammation of the mucosa of the sinuses.
Rhinitis Nasal mucous membrane inflammation.
Rhinorrhea runny nose
Nasal polyp Pinkish gray color focal thickening of the mucosa due to edema.
Charcot Marie Tooth-X mutation in Cx-32. The symptoms include peripheral n. demyelination and axonal degeneration because of an autoimmune attack.
Trochlear n. Injury Leads to double vision when the patient looks straight downward.
Hyperacusis (hearing things louder than normal) is associated with damage to the facial n. that innervates the stapedius m.
Otitis Media is an ear infection. It can be of the ext., middle or inner ear.
Myringotomy is when a tympanostomy tube is put in the eardrum to relieve pressure and excess fluid.
Otosclerosis (calcification/hardening of annular l.) causes deafness.
Papilledema is bulging of the optic disc due to intracranial pressure.
Glaucoma is when retinal ganglion cells die by apoptosis. One of the main causes is heightened pressure in the eye due to diseases such as diabetes.
Cataracts are caused by protein deposition in the lens. They can obstruct vision.
CNIII Palsy causes pupil dilation and can be caused by tumors, aneurysms, etc.
Ophthalmoplegia can be caused by thrombosis of cavernous sinus or aneurysm of the int. carotid a. which can compress the nerves present there
Orbicularis Oculi Muscle Innervated by CNVII
Levator Palpebrae Superioris innervated by CNIII and elevate the upper lid
Sup. Tarsal Musle Innervated by sympathetic n. and elevate the upper lid.
Lacrimal Apparatus produces tears and is innervated by the nervous intermedius from CNVII from lacrimal nucleus and sup. salivatory nucleus
Tear Pathway Tears → puncta lacrimalia → lacrimal canal → lacrimal sac → nasolacrimal duct → inf. nasal meatus
Intraocular Muscles Sphincter Pupillae, Ciliary Muscle, & Dilator Pupillae
Dilator Pupillae contraction dilates pupil, sympathetic innervation (T1-T2, long ciliary n. from CNV/1)
Sphincter Pupillae constricts pupil, parasympathetic innervation by CNIII (from Edinger-Westphal nucleus)
Ciliary Muscles contraction thickens lens, parasympathetic innervation is CNIII (from Edinger-Westphal nucleus)
Extraocular Muscles Inf. Oblique, Sup. Oblique, Sup. Rectus, Inf. Rectus, Lateral Rectus, and Medial Rectus
Superior Rectus lifts eye, turns eye medially in adduction, innervated by CN III.
Inferior Rectus Depresses eye, innervated by CNIII
Medial Rectus turns eye medially in adduction, innervated by CNIII
Lateral Rectus turns eye lateral in abduction, innervated by CNVI
Superior Oblique rotates upper ½ eye toward nose; abduct, depress and internally depress eye, innervated by CNIV
Inferior Oblique extorsion, elevation, and abduction of eye, innervated by CNIII
Contents of Cavernous Sinus CNIII, CNIV, CNVI, part of CNV, & int. carotid a.
CNI Olfactory (sensory)
CNII Optic (sensory)
CNIII Oculomotor (motor)
CNIV Trochlear (motor)
CNV Trigeminal (sensory & motor)
CNV Trigeminal (sensory & motor)
CNVI Abducens (motor)
CNIX Glossopharyngeal (sensory & motor)
CNVI Abducens (motor)
CNX Vagus (sensory & motor)
CNXI Accessory (motor)
CNXII Hypoglossal (motor)
Cornea Innervated by CNV-1 (ophthalmic nerve)
CNV-1 Opthalmic Nerve
CNV-2 Maxillary Nerve
CNV-3 Mandibular Nerve
Optic Disc Blindspot of the eye, (where the optic nerves exit)
Schlemm’s Canal site of absorption for the aqueous humor produced the by the ciliary process
Central Fovea it's the site with the most photoreceptors and has the highest visual acuity.
Blood Supply of the Eye central artery of retina & ciliary artery (these arteries are branches of ophthalmic a. from int. carotid a.)
Venous Drainage of the Eye superior and inferior ophthalmic vein into cavernous sinus then to cranial venous sinuses and finally to the internal jugular vein
Direct & Consensual Light Reflex (constriction of the pupil when light is shown into the eye) is controlled by CNIII (Edinger-Westphal nuclei). This can be lost in head trauma.
Accommodation The changes made in the eye when changing from looking at something far away to looking at something nearby. Medial rotation of the eyes, constriction of the pupil, & contraction of the ciliary m. (thickening of the lens) occurs during accommodation.
Auditory Pathway External Ear → Tympanic Membrane → Middle Ear → Internal Ear
External Ear Contains the auricle, and external auditory/acoustic meatus. Innervated by auriculotemporal nerve (CNV) and auricular branch of CNX. Blood supply: anterior, posterior, and deep auricular artery (from external carotid artery)
Tympanic Membrane transmits sound (vibrates when hit by sound waves). The thin layer of skin covering the Tympanic Membrane has two parts; the external part is called stratified keratinizing epithelium & the internal part is called the simple squamous epithelium.
Middle Ear (Tympanic Cavity) Contains ossicles, & borders the medial/labyrinthic wall, Tensor Tympani muscle, Auditory/Eustachian Tube. The muscles in the middle are the Stapedius & Tensor Tympani muscle.
Superficial Muscles around Auricle Innervation (part of the external ear) innervated by CNVII
Stapedius Muscle Draws stapes out of oval window, dampens sound transmission, innervated by the stapedius branch of CNVII
Auditory/Eustachian Tube Connects nasopharynx to middle ear cavity
Tensor Tympani Muscle Tenses tympanic membrane, innervated by CNV-3 (Mandibular Nerve)
Ossicles transmits sound (bones of the ear: Malleus Incus, & Stapes)
Auditory/Eustachian Tube Connects nasopharynx to middle ear cavity
Mastoid Antrum An air space in the mastoid bone, which contains mastoid cells.
Mastoid Cells Spaces in the Mastoid Antrum that very in size & number.
Medial Wall (Labrynthic Wall) Has two openings leading into the internal ear; Round (Cochlear) Window, & Oval (Vestibular) Window.
Oval Window (Vestibular) Leads to the vestibule, the middle par of the bony labyrinth.
Internal Ear Contents: Membranous labyrinth, Bony labyrinth, Cochlea, & Vestibular system.
Membranous Labyrinth filled with Endolymph
Bony Labyrinth filled with Perilymph & surrounds the Membranous Labyrinth
Vestibular System a sense organ for equilibrium and consists of three parts; the Saccule, Utricle, & Semicircular ducts.
Int. Auditory Meatus Contains CNVIII
Perilymph (fills the M.L.) a fluid similar to CSF constituents, & rich in Na^+(Sodium) & suspends the M.L.
Endolymph (fills the B.L.) a fluid similar to intracellular fluid constituents, & rich in K^+(Potassium)
Saccule & Utricle Sensory receptors responsible for detection of linear acceleration, & pull of gravity.
Semicircular Ducts Their ampulla have a ridge called the cristae ampullaris which have hair cells that detect angular acceleration
Cochlea Consists of: Scala Tympani, Scala Vestibuli, Helicoterma & Cochlear Duct
Helicoterma Connects the Scala Vestibuli and Scala Tympani
Cochlear Duct A trigangular canal that between the S.V. & the S.T. The Basilar Membrane is the floor. The Stria Vascularis forms the lateral wall.
Organ of Corti hair cells that sense sound
Stria Vascularis Floor of the cochlear duct, it contains the Organ of Corti.
Basilar Membrane Lateral wall of the Cochlear Duct, & produces Endolymph
Scala Tympani Tympanic Duct
Scala Vestibuli Vestibular Duct
Neurons (Central Nervous Systems cells) they transmit electrical signals, found in grey matter of CNS and ganglia. 3 types: Bipolar, Unipolar, Multipolar.
Nerve Fibers 3 Types; A, B, And C.
A Fibers myelinated & four sub-classified nerve fibers(fast to slowest); Alpha(fastest conduction velocity), Beta, Gamma, & Delta
B Fibers myelinated
C Fibers (slowest conduction velocity) thin, & unmyelinated
Cell Body (perikaryon) vary in size, contain normal cell organelles & RE of Neurons.
Axon (part of the neuron, also called nerve fibers) transmits neural impulses away from the neuron. Each Neuron only has one Axon.
Dendrite Increase the receptive area of the Neuron, and transmit info to the neuron.
Bipolar Interneuron They are found in a retina, olfactory, & auditory systems. A single neurite branching from the cell, & divides shortly into a peripheral & central axon.
Unipolar Sensory neuron (Pseudounipolar) Found in the dorsal root & other sensory ganglia. A single neurite branching from one pole of the cell.
Multipolar neuron Found in the ventral horn of the spinal cord, and many other places in the brain. One axon & several dendrites.
Myelin Made up of 80% lipids, 20% proteins, & insulates neurons (specifically axons) – speeds up nerve impulse. Intermittent rather than continuous.
Nodes of Ranvier Interrupt the myelin sheath.
Conduction Velocity increases with increased size of the diameter of an axon, &/or if myelin is present.
Relative Refractory period is a short period after the Action Potential during which another Action Potential cannot be induced, because the Na^+ channels are closed.
Absolute Refractory period A short period during which a strong stimulus can induce an Action Potential
Repolarization Occurs when the membrane opens the K^+ channels, which open more after the inactivation of the Na^+ channels, thereby repolarizing itself.
Depolarization This leads to action potential (+40 mV) and n. impulse
Synapse connection between neurons or nerve and muscles, 4 types; Chemical, Electrical, Excitatory, or Inhibitory.
Resting Membrane Potential -80mV
Action Potential Short Lasting excitation of the cell, during which the membrane potential of the cell rises rapidly, then subsequently falls
Exicitation Depolarization
Electrical Synapses gap junctions (formed by connexons), ions flow in either directions or bidirectionally via the connexons.
Chemical Synapses (most common) unidirectional, neurotransmitter
Excitatory depolarizing the postsynaptic membrane
Inhibitory hyperpolarizing & decreasing the chance of the postsynaptic neuron being excited.
Reflex Arc determines a structural plan of the nervous system and can be somatic or visceral, consisting of a working chain of coordinating neurons.
Essential Components of a reflex Sensory receptor → Sensory nerve → Interneuron (in spinal column) → Motor neuron → the effector organ (a muscle for example)
Central Nervous System brain, brainstem, & spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System spinal & cranial nerves, peripheral ganglia
Glial cells (Peripheral Nervous Systems cells) nonexcitable & have other functions, including support, protection, myelination & cavity lining of the nervous tissue
Oligodendrocytes (Central Nervous System support) Create the myelin sheath for CNS Axons
Microglial cells (Central Nervous System support) Immune defense & phagocytic activity
Ependymal cells (Central Nervous System support) line fluid filled cavities
Astrocytes (CNS support) blood brain barrier, support, supply glucose to neurons. 2 types; protoplasmic & fibrous astrocytes
Protoplasmic Astrocytes shorter processes, mainly in grey matter
Fibrous Astrocytes long processes, mainly in white matter
Dermatome sensory innervation of skin
Schwann cells (Peripheral Nervous System support) Create the myelin sheath for PNS Axons (regeneration)
Satellite cells (Peripheral Nervous System support) line the exterior surface of neurons in the PNS
Motor Nerves Three types of motor nerves innervate muscles; Alpha, Gamma, & C
Large Alpha (Motor Nerve) Innervate Extrafusal muscles
Small Gamma (Motor Nerve) Innervate Intrafusal muscles
Thin, Unmyelinated C (Motor Nerve) supply smooth muscle in the wall of blood vessels, visceral organs & glands
Motor End Plate (Neuromuscular Junction) connects the nervous system to the muscular system via synapses between efferent nerve fibers and muscle fibers. 3 parts: Natural Element, Muscular Element, & Synaptic Cleft.
Neural Element (Motor End Plate of Motor Nerves) myelinated axon that loses myelin
Muscular Element (Motor End Plate of Motor Nerves) naked axon in groove of sarcolemma
Synaptic Cleft (Motor End Plate of Motor Nerves) space between sarcolemma and axon
Tetracycline An antibiotic that, when given to a child, may lead to yellow discoloration of the teeth, enamal hypoplasia, & reduced growth of long bones.
Congenital Syphilis (Treponema pallidum) results in deformed (Hutinson's teeth), showing indentations on the borders of teeth. It's a severe condition that may be accompained by mental retardation, hydrocephalus, deafness, blindness, & other conditions.
Measels (rubeola) extremely contagious, with a 7-14 day incubation period. Begins with a fever, cough, conjunctivitis, & excessive mucus production, followed by Koplik's Spots in the mouth & spots on the trunk within 2-3 days. Complications include otitis media & pneumonia
Koplik's Spots red with a white center
Coryza excessive mucus production
Conjunctivitis photophobia
Herpes Simplex 1 displays as lesions around the lips and in the mouth. The virus is dormant in the sensory ganglia and is reactivated by stress, sunlight, menses, etc.
Aphthous (canker sores or stress ulcers) are localized ulcerations in the mouth. They are painful. grayish lesions on a red base, and are often stress induced.
Peuts-Jeghers Syndrome is an autosomal dominant disease. Symptoms include polyps of the GI tract (jejunum) & melanocytic pigmentation of the lips and oral mucosa.
Addison's Disease (adrenocortical insufficiency) involves excess ACTH (melanocyte stimulating properties).
Heavy Metal Poisoning is Exhibited in a lead line in the gingiva, & includes silver poisoning (grayish discoloration)
Receptors Sensory nerve endings (9 types of sensory receptors: Mechanoreceptors, Thermoreceptors, Chemoreceptors, Baroreceptors, Electromagnetic Receptors, Nociceptors, Neuromusclular Spindles & Neurotendineus Spindles)
Mechanoreceptors (Sensory Nerve) Respond to Mechanical Stimulus.
Thermoreceptors (Sensory Nerve) Sense temperature changes
Chemoreceptors (Sensory Nerve) sense chemical changes by taste & smell, or by oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration in the blood.
Baroreceptors (Sensory Nerve) stimulated when blood pressure is high.
Electromagnetic Receptors (Sensory Nerve) photoreceptors that detect light
Muscle Receptors (Sensory Nerve) There are two types of muscle sensory receptors; Neuromusclular spindles & Neurotendineus spindles.
Neurotendineus Spindles (Muscle Receptors of Sensory Nerve) (Golgi tendon organ) in tendons, sense tension to prevent tearing/avulsion of tendon
Neuromusclular Spindles (Muscle Receptors of Sensory Nerve) in skeletal muscle for muscle activity control
Nociceptors (Sensory Nerve) Pain Receptors
Hair Follicle Receptors (Mechanoreceptors of A Beta N.) senses bending of hair
Meissner’s Corpuscles (Mechanoreceptors of A Beta N.) modified flattened Schwann cells, touch in palm, sole, nipple and external genitalia
Pacinian Corpuscles (Mechanoreceptors of A. Beta N.) onion-like, detects vibration in dermis, ext. genitalia, l. and joint capsules
Ruffini’s Corpuscles (Mechanoreceptors of A. Beta N.) senses stretch in dermis of hair skin
Hering’s n. [Baroreceptors] (CNIX), CNX, symp. n. in carotid body: senses carbon dioxide tension increase and oxygen tension decrease
Teeth Innervated by Maxillary Nerve (Upper) & Mandibular (Lower). The blood supplied by superior and inferior alveolar artery. (from maxillary a.) The venous drainage is superior and inferior alveolar veins.
Palatoglossus elevates the tongue, and is innervated by CNX (pharyngeal plexus)
Palatopharyngeus elevates the pharynx, and is innervated by CNX (pharyngeal plexus)
Tensor Veli Palatine elevates the velum of the palate during swallowing, tenses the soft palate, opens the Eustachian tube and is innervated by CNV
Uvulae Muscle elevates the uvula, and is innervated by CNX (pharyngeal plexus)
Oral & Laryngeal Sensory Innervation CNIX
Levator Veli Palatine Elevates the soft palate, and is innervated by CNX (pharyngeal plexus)
Nose Innervation Motor: CNVII, Smell: CNI, Sensory: CNV-1 & CNV-2 (sensory for the tip of the nose is innervated by CNV-1),
Nose Blood Supply ophthalmic, maxillary, & facial arteries.
Nose Venous Drainage ophthalmic, maxillary, & facial veins.
Stylopharyngeus Muscle innervated by CNIX (motor branch), elevates and widens the pharynx
Pharynx 3 parts: nasopharynx, oropharynx, & laryngopharynx (Hypopharynx). It's part of both digestive and respiratory tracts. The venous drainage is the through the internal jugular vein.
Nasopharynx Starts from post. nasal aperture & ends at C2. The pharyngeal opening of the Eustachian tube, torus tubarius, salpingopalatine fold, pharyngeal tonsil can be found here.
Oropharynx Starts from soft palate (at C2) & ends at the level of hyoid bone. The Palatopharyngeal fold & Palatine tonsils can be found here.
Laryngopharynx (Hypopharynx) Starts from Epiglotties & ends at the cricoid cartilage. The piriform recess can be found here.
Pharynx Blood Supply ext. carotid (through ascending pharyngeal, facial, & maxillary artery).
Piriform Recess Directs food away from airway
Pharynx Innervation Mucuous Membrane sensory innervation is CNIX (pharyngeal plexus) & Motor Innervation is by CNX (Except Stylopharyngeus)
Superior, Middle, & Inferior Constrictor Pharyngeal Muscle innervated by CNX(pharyngeal plexus) & constricts different parts of pharynx.
Waldeyer’s Ring of Lymphoid Tissue Consists of pharyngeal/adenoid tonsil, tubal tonsil, palatine tonsil, lingual tonsil & forms a ring that protects respiratory and GI tracts from microbes.
Styloglossus (extrinsic) elevation/retraction of the tongue, innervated by CNXII
Hyoglossus (extrinsic) depression of the tongue, innervated by CNXII
Genioglossus (extrinsic) depression of the tongue, innervated by CNXII
Sup. and Inf. longitudinal muscles of the Tongue (intrinsic) curl tongue, & shorten tongue, innervated by CNXII
Transverse muscle of the Tongue (intrinsic) elongation of tongue, & narrowing tongue, innervated by CNXII
Vertical muscles of the Tongue (intrinsic) widen and flatten tongue, innervated by CNXII
Blood Supply & Venous Drainage of Tongue Main blood supply is lingual a. (from ext. carotid a.), minor blood supply is inf. alveolar a., facial a., ascending pharyngeal a. The venous drainage is from the lingual v. and others (to int. jugular v.)
Dorsum of the Tongue covered by various papillae that increase the area for taste receptors. 4 papillae important papillae on the dorsum are the Fungiform, Foliate, Filiform & Vallate papillae.
Vallate Papillae largest papillae, only 8-10, located anterior to terminal sulci, most taste buds in the epithelium
Filiform Papillae located on the dorsum, sensitive to touch, typically no taste buds
Fungiform Papillae located on the dorsum & apex, taste buds
Foliate Papillae Located on the sides of the tongue.
Tongue Develops from 2nd and 3rd branchial arch, & aids in ingestion, swallowing, chewing, speech, & sucking.
Lingual Vein used for bypassing 1st pass effect
Innervation of the Tongue Ant. 2/3 sensory n. - lingual n. (CNV/3), later leaves this n. and joins CNVII via the chorda tympani. Ant. 2/3 taste n. – chorda tympani (CNVII). Post. 1/3 taste and sensory n. - innervated by CNIX. Back is innervated by CNX.
Taste Fibers (part of tongue innervation) Terminate in the nucleus solitarius.
Saliva 1 L/day is made, & used for lubrication, protection, initial starch digestion, dilution
Inferior Salivary Glands (Sublingual & Submandibular gland) Secretes into oral cavity proper. They are innervated by the parasympathetic superior salivatory nucleus (CNVII).
Superior Salivary Glands (Parotid gland) It's innervated by the parasympathetic superior salivatory nucleus (CNIX).
Parotid Gland Consists of serious type secretory glands. The int. & ext. carotid a., int. jugular v., CNIX, & CNX are in the vicinity. Saliva produced by the parotid gland goes through Stenson’s duct in buccinators into vestibule of mouth near 2nd upper molar.
Hard Palate Forms anterior 3/5 of roof of mouth & is made up by the Maxillary and palatine bones.
Soft Palate (Velum) The Oral side is covered by stratified squamous epithelium. The Nasopharyngeal side is covered by pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium. Uvula descends from post. side. Consists of muscles, glands, lymphoid tissue, aponeurosis.
Palate Innervation Parasympathetic Fibers from superior salivatory nucleus innervate mucous membrane, glands, other structures. Sensory innervation is through CNV-2 through the Pterygopalatine branch.
Pterygopalatine Branch Innervation (Part of the Palate Innervation) Greater & Lesser palatine nerves innervate the posterior parts of the palate & nasopalatine nerve rostrally.
Lateral Wall of the Nasal Cavity Contains the superior, middle, & inferior concha, Sphenoethmoid recess, & superior, middle, & inferior meati. Under each concha is a meatus.
Superior & Middle Concha They come from the ethmoid bone.
Inferior Concha is a bone of the facial skeleton.
Sphenoethmoid Recess Located behind Superior Concha. The Sphenoidal sinus & Sphenopalatine foramen opens here.
Sphenopalatine Foramen Contains sphenopalatine vessels, & connects the nasal cavity to the pterygopalatine fossa.
Superior Nasal Meatus posterior ethmoidal cells open here
Middle Nasal Meatus Ethmoidal bulba is located here. Middle ethmoidal air cells open on or above the Ethmoidal bulba. Located inferiorly to the Ethmoidal Bulba is the Semilunar Hiatus. Across the semilunar hiatus is the frontonasal sinus.
Inferior Nasal Meatus Contains the opening for the nasolacriminal duct.
Semilunar Hiatus Openings for anterior ethmoidal air cells and maxillary sinus are found here. Located undereneath the Ethmoidal bulba, in the middle nasal meatus.
Frontal Sinus Drains into the middle nasal meatus via the frontonasal duct. Located across from the semilunar haitus, inside the middle nasal meatus.
Iliopsoas Muscle is the chief flexor of the hip and helps in lateral flexion of the vertebral column, & helps in achieving & maintaing supine position. It's innervated by L1-L3 (lumbar plexus to the psoas, & lumbar plexus & femoral nerve to the iliacus).
Obturator Muscle Laterally rotates the thigh at the hip joint, an abductor when the leg is flexed; helps keep the head of the femur in the socket. Innervated by the nerve to the obturator internus (L5-S2).
Piriformis Muscle It's Lateral rotator, & abductor of the thigh, & it helps keeps the femur head in the acetabulum. It's innervated by the nerve to piriformis (from the sacral plexus), S1-S2.
Pap Smear It's performed on a female to count the various cell types (atypical cells and low or high-grade lesions). It screens for cancers.
Bulbourethral Glands (homologous structures) Cowper’s in male, Bartholin’s in female.
Aqueous Humour It's a transparent fluid with low-protein concentrations. Located in the anterior & posterior chambers of the eye, (the spaces between the lens and the cornea).
Levator Ani Muscle 3 parts; Puborectalis, Iliococcygeus & Puboccygeus. Supports pelvic structures & organs. Innervated by S4, inferior rectal (anal) n. coming from the pudendal, & the coccygeal plexus. Ant. medial edges of this muscle don't fuse & gap is covered by fascia.
Puborectalis (rectal sling) Part of the Levator Ani Muscle, it helps with fetal continence.
Coccygeus Muscle Contraction of this muscle can flex the coccyx, it also assists the Levator Ani Muscle in function. Innervated by S4-S5.
Pelvic Diaphragm (pelvic floor) It's made up by the Levator Ani Muscle & the Coccygeus Muscle.
Pelvic Contents urinary bladder, anterior urinary tract, distal parts GI tract, part of rectum, rectovesical pouch, internal male/female genital organs, vesicouterine/uterovesical pouch (female only), rectouterine pouch (female only)
Homologous Arteries Inferior Vesical artery (MALE) & Vaginal artery (FEMALE) are homologus. Uterine Artery (FEMALE) & the Artery of the ductus deferens (MALE) are homologus.
Urinary Bladder Reservoir for urine, it can hold 500-700 ml of urine, the urge to defecate is at 350 ml.
Trigone (Part of UB) located on posterior surface and near neck of bladder. It contains the opening for the ureters. At the trigone, the smooth muscle of the bladder forms internal urethral sphincter.
Paracystium (Part of UB) loose connective tissue, contains n. and vessels, surrounds bladder ant. and lat.
Sympathetic Urinary Bladder Innervation inf. hypogastric plexus (lesser, least, lumbar splanchnic n.) These nerves contract internal urethral sphincter & relaxation of the detrusor m. [motor (efferent)]. Same nerves are responsible for sensory (afferent) info from urinary bladder.
Parasympathetic Urinary Bladder Innervation pelvic splanchnic n. (S2-S4) in inf. hypogastric plexus. Nerve's motor NN. contracts the detrusor muscle & relaxation for internal urethral sphincter. The sensory (afferent) NN. carries the pain & stretch information away from the bladder.
Parasympathetic Urinary Bladder Innervation (Referred Pain) Referred pain from these internal organs is conveyed to the corresponding dermatones of the perineum, as well as the upper thigh posteriorly.
Urinary Bladder Blood Supply Branches of interior iliac a. [Sup. vesical a., Obturator a., Inf. gluteal a., & Inf. vesical a.] & (Inf. vesical a. from int. iliac a. {MALE}) & (Inf. vesical a. from uterine a. {FEMALE}) & (Vaginal a. {FEMALE}) & (Vaginal a. {FEMALE})
Urinary Bladder Venous Drainage Vertebral Venous plexus→Urinary Bladder→[prostatic venous plexus (only in males)]→Vesical Venous Plexus→Interior Iliac Vein
Seminal Vesicles Pseudostratified columnar epithelium covers the seminal vesicle. Glands that produce alkaline secretion that contains fructose (energy), prostaglandins, and other things. This secretion makes up bulk of semen.
Blood Supply, Venous Drainage, & Innervations of Seminal Vesicle Blood supplied by the inf. vesical a., middle rectal a. The veins drain into the inf. vesical v., middle rectal v. And is innervated by pelvic splanchnic nerve (Parasympathetic & Sympathetic)
Seminal Vesicles & Ejaculatory Ducts Lined by 2x cell layer of pseudostratified epithelium. Contains lipofuscin (golden-brown pigment).
Blood Supply, Venous Drainage, & Innervations of Seminal Vesicles & Ejaculatory Ducts BD: by inf. vesical a., middle rectal a., int. pudendal a. VD: prostatic venous plexus→internal iliac v. 2nd route via prostatic venous plexus & internal vertbebral venous plexus. NN: S2-S4 (sympathetic & parasympathetic)
Metastazing of Prostate can be caused by the communication w/ vesical venous plexus and int. vertebral venous plexus in the Seminal Vesicles & Ejaculatory Ducts
Epididymis Stores spermatozoa, & maturation of spermatozoa occurs here. Upon sexual stimulation, it contracts and releases sperm into the Duct of epididymis which drains into the vas deferens.
Spermatozoa A sperm cell that has yet to mature and is nonmotile.
Sperm Matured sperm cell, that is motile.
Duct of Epididymis The wall of the duct of epididymis is lined with Stereociliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium. It drains into the Vas Deferens,
Ductus/Vas Deferens Muscular tube that runs from the tail of the epididymis through inguinal canal & ends by joining the duct of seminal vesicle. Stereociliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium line it. Blood supplied by inf. vesicle a. & vein drains into inf. vesicle v.
Male Urethra 4 parts: prostatic, preprostatic, membranous, & spongy. BS: inf. vesical, middle rectal, & int. pudendal arteries. VD: vesical, middle rectal, pudendal & veins. NN: pudendal n., pelvic splanchnic n. (parasymp.), inf. hypogastric plexus (symp.).
Preprostatic (Male Urethra) located in pelvis, and follows internal urethral orifice.
Membranous (Male Urethra) in perineum, narrowest part, most prone to damage Surrounded by ext. urethral sphincter & perineal membrane Originates from deep trans. perineal m.(urogenital diaphragm) controlled voluntarily & NN by the Pudendal n. Cowper’s Gland are Posterolateral
Spongy (Male Urethra) located in perineum, Cowper’s/bulbourethral glands open into here. Squamous epithelium covers the area close to the external urethral orifice.
Pseudostratified or Stratified Columnar Epithelium Bulbar & membranous parts of the urethra are covered by this.
Cowper’s Glands (Male Urethra) (bulbourethral glands) Open into spongy urethra, & located posterolaterally to the membranous section of the urethra.
Clitoris It's only function is sexual arousal. It's also homologous to the penis.
Bulbs of the Vestibule have a venous plexus, & are homologous to the bulbs of the penis.
Prostate homologous structure is paraurethral glands of Skene. Largest accessory gland in male reproductive system. Palpable through rectal examination.
Female Urethra More prone to infection because it's shorter. BD: int. pudendal, & vaginal arteries. VD: int. pudendal, & vaginal vein. Deep trans. perineal m. forms external urethral sphincter (voluntary control). The urethral glands open into urethra.
Prostatic Secretion weakly acidic secretion that contains, citric acid, & prostaglandins
Bartholin’s Glands (Female Urethra) lesser & greater vestibular glands are found around lower parts of the female urethra.
Cell Types found in the Prostatic Epithelium Neuroendocrine, Basal, Secretory, Uothelium and Ejaculatory duct/seminal vesical cells
Prostatic Utricle (Prostatic Section of Male Urethra) blind opening, remnant of Mullerian/paramesonephric duct. Close to the openings of ejaculatory ducts.
Prostatic (Male Urethra) located in pelvis, most dilated part, urothelium covers the prostatic part of the urethra. The Urethral crest has a Seminal colliculus that has two openings of ejaculatory ducts & Prostatic sinuses with Prostatic ductules (openings).
Urethral Crest (Prostatic Section of Male Urethra) a ridge on the middle posterior wall of the prostatic urethra
Seminal Colliculus (Prostatic Section of Male Urethra) fusiform expansion on the Urethral Crest
Prostatic Ductules (Prostatic Section of Male Urethra) fenstrations (openings) on the prostatic ductules.
Prostatic Sinuses (Prostatic Section of Male Urethra) a slightly depressed fossa located on both sides of seminal colliculus.
Basal Cell separate secretory cells from basement membrane, low cuboidal epithelium w/ columnar mucus-secreting cells. Some reserve cells (stem cells) that are positive for androgen receptors.
Neuroendocrine Cell positive for chromogranin A,B, secretogranin II, peptide hormones, PSA.
Prostatic Glandular tissue Secretes normal mucins, produces pigment: lipofuscin, & is Androgen sensitive (castration = atrophy)
Secretory Cells Positive for PAP, PSA, vimentin, keratin, LEU7/CD57, EMA (80%) & CEA (25%).
Perineum Lowest part of trunk. Perineal body in the center is the site of attachment for all perineal muscles. All perineal muscles are innervated by the branch of pudendal n.
Deep trans. perineal muscle aid the pelvic diaphragm in orgasm, support perineal body & innervated by the branch of pudendal n.
Sup. trans. perineal muscle aid the pelvic diaphragm in orgasm, support perineal body & innervated by the branch of pudendal n.
Ischiocavernosus muscle aids in erection & innervated by the branch of pudendal n.
Bulbospongiosus supports perineal body, aids in erection & innervated by the branch of pudendal n.
Ext. anal sphincter closes anal canal, supports perineal body, & innervated by the inf. rectal/anal n. branch of pudendal n.
Ext. urethral sphincter Compresses urethra & responsible for urinary continence. In males, it also extends to ant. surface of prostate. In females it surrounds urethra and vagina, it's called the urethrovaginal sphincter in females. It's innervated by the branch of pudendal n.
Paraurethral glands of Skene (Female Urethra) open into the external urethral orifice & are homologous structures to the prostate (male). The ducts of the paraurethral glands are found on each side of the ext. urethral orifice.
Broad ligament of the Uterus Supports & lifts uterus & Fallopian tubes, 2x layer sheath of parietal peritoneum. Vesicouterine and rectouterine pouches are extensions. It's has different names based on where it's located.
Contents of the Broad ligament Contents: uterine a./v./n., ovarian a./v./n., suspensory l. of ovary, parts of ovary, fallopian tube, ureter, transverse cervical/cardinal l., fat/areolar tissue, ovarian l., epoophoron, paroophoron, Gartner’s duct (remnant of Wolffian’s duct)
Mesovarium (Broad ligament of the Uterus) when it's around the ovaries
Mesosalpinx (Broad ligament of the Uterus) when it's around the uterine tubes
Mesometrium (Broad ligament of the Uterus) when it's on the uterus
Suspensor l. of Ovary (Broad ligament of the Uterus) covering ovarian vessels extended to pelvic wall
Blood Supply & Venous Drainage for the Scrotum BD: post. scrotal a. (from int. pudendal a.), ant. scrotal a. (from ext. pudendal a. from femoral a.), cremasteric branch of inf. epigastric a. VD: post scrotal to int. pudendal, ext. pudendal, cremasteric branch of inf. epigastric veins
Lymphatic drainage & Innervations for the Scrotum Lymphatic drainage is to sup. inguinal lymph nodes which then drain into the deep inguinal lymph nodes. NN: genitofemoral n. (Anterolateral), ilioinguinal n. (Anterior), pudendal n.(Posterior) post. femoral cutaneous n. (Inferior)
Contraction of Dartos fascia & Dartos muscle wrinkling of scrotum (prevents heat loss)
Scrotum out pouching of the skin of the perineal region that is the continuation of the abdominal wall structures, some layers can be seen in the wall of the scrotum or in the spermatic cord, Covers testes.
Layers of the Scrotum Skin, Dartos fascia, dartos m., Ext. spermatic fascia, Cremaster m. & fascia, Int. spermatic fascia, & Tunica vaginalis
Dartos fascia, & muscle continuation of sup. fascia of abdominal wall
Ext. spermatic fascia continuation of ext. abd. oblique m.
Cremaster m. & fascia continuation of int. abd. oblique m.
Int. spermatic fascia continuation of transversalis fascia
Tunica vaginalis continuation of peritoneum
Skin continuation of abdominal wall
Thermoregulator of the Testes pampiniform plexus, dartos fascia & cremaster muscle
Surface of the Ovaries Surface isn't covered by peritoneum (vessels and ligaments are covered by mesovarium). Surface of the ovary is covered by simple cuboidal epithelium, it's scarred in older women.
Ovarian Blood Supply & Drainage BS: ovarian a. from abdominal aorta.VD: ovarian v. (Right directly to IVC) & (Left to left renal v.).
Ovaries 2 parts: Medulla & Cortex. Ovaries are attached to the Uterus by means of the ovarian ligament. Suspensory l. contains ovarian a. and v. Produces estrogen when stimulated by FSH from the pituitary gland & produces ovum in a process called Oogenesis
Oogenesis Process of producing ovum. Meiosis of oocytes is stopped in fetal life (frozen @ primary oocyte). Meiosis continues in oocyte that will become the ovum released. A Graafian follicle is a large, mature prior to rupture.
Uterus Place where fetus implants and grows, & It can extend as high as T9 near the end of pregnancy. The Uterus has 3 layers; Endometrium, Myometrium, & Peritoneum. The vaginal portion of uterus is by stratified squamous non-keratinizing epithelium.
Dynamic Support of Uterus is provided by the pelvic diaphragm
Blood Supply, Venous Drainage, Passive/Mechanical Support, & Innervation of the Uterus BS: uterine a. (from int. iliac a.) and ovarian a. VD: uterine v. (from int. iliac v.) and ovarian v. Passive/Mechanical is support antroversion (90 degree). Innervated by pelvic splanchnic n.: S2-S4 (symp. and parasymp.).
Testes Each is covered by tunica albuginea, & left is lower than the right. They produces spermatozoa (envelops it) & secrete male androgens (aka testosterone) via Leydig cells. They also secrete inhibin to regulate the previous these two processes.
Fallopian Tubes Located intraperitoneal in the mesosalpinx. 4 parts: Infundibulum, Ampulla, Isthmus, & Uterine part. Interior of the tube is covered by simple high columnar ciliated epithelium that produces fluid for egg nutrition (fluid has current produced by Ciliae).
Penis 3 Cylindrical parts: 2 corpora cavernosa (erectile tissues) & 1 corpus spongiosum. Tunica albuginea (fibrous capsule) covers corpora cavernosas. 3 mechanisms: ejaculation, emission & erection.
Myometrium The middle layer of the uterus. It's the smooth muscle layer of the uterus.
Endometrium The inner most layer. The mucosa which makes up the endometrium, is made out of simple high columnar epithelium.
Peritoneum The outer most layer of the uterus. It covers the Myometrium from the outside.
Opening of External Os (part of uterus) is round in a female who hasn’t had children, & transverse after childbirth.
Sertoli Cells Support the production spermatozoa in seminiferous tubules, by enveloping them, & by supporting them to maturation.
Blood Supply, & Venous Drainage of Testes BS: testicular/gonadal a. (from abdominal aorta). VD: pampiniform plexus (thermoregulator) to testicular v., L. testicular v. to left renal v. & R. testicular v. to IVC.
Blood Supply, Venous Drainage, & Innervation of the Fallopian tubes BS: ovarian a. (from abdominal aorta), uterine a. (from int. iliac a.). VD: ovarian v., uterine v., R. uterine v. drains to IVC & L. uterine v. drains into the l. renal v. Innervated by the pelvic splanchnic nerves S2-S4 (symp. and parasymp.).
Uterine part of the Fallopian Tubes (intramural) Short & runs through the uterus into the uterine cavity.
Isthmus of the Fallopian Tubes Connects the ampulla to the uterine part.
Infundibulum of the Fallopian Tubes Is open & has fingerlike structures called the fimbria. It opens into the peritoneal cavity at the fimbria.
Ampulla of the Fallopian Tubes Site of fertilization, has longitudinal grooves to help guide the ovum, & is the widest part.
Ciliae of Glandular Cells in the Fallopian Tubes Produces a current in fluid that helps with spermatozoa distribution & egg migration.
Erection Innervated by the pelvic splanchnic n. (parasymp). Helicine a. relaxes & blood rushes in, blood fills corpus cavernosa (tunica albuginea tightened), bulbospongiosus & ischiocavernosus contract, (contraction prevents outflow of blood).
Emission This mechanism is innervated by L1-L2 (symp). After being stimulated, the ductus deferens and seminal vesicles deliver semen to prostatic urethra by mean of peristalsis.
Ejaculation Ejaculation is contolled by the contraction of the urethral m. (S2-S4, parasymp). Accompanied by the contraction of the bulbospongiosus m. via somatic n. (S2-S4, pudendal n.). The Symp. n. leads to the closure of the int. urethral sphincter.
Prepuce (foreskin) The prolongation of the skin & fascia of the penis extended as a double layer over the glans penis. This may be removed in a process called circumcision.
Flaccidity of Penis after Ejaculation Occurs when the helicine a. contract so blood leaves (symp.).
Vagina Covered by Stratified nonkeratinizing squamous epithelium, with almost no glands in the epithelium. Vaginal secretion is from cervix, & Bartholin’s glands. Vaginal environment is acidic to protect from infections &/or microbes (pH 4-4.5).
Blood Supply of the Vagina uterine, vaginal, & int. pudendal arteries
Fornix of Vagina The lower part of the cervix that protrudes into the vagina. The bladder can be palpated through the ant. fornix in vaginal examination. The rectouterine (Douglas) pouch, rectum, & vertebrae can be palpated through the post. fornix in vaginal examination.
Menstrual Cycle Each cycle leads to one the release of one ovum. This doesn't occur if pregnant, after menopause, pre-puberty, or severely malnutritioned. Usually 28 days, counting starts from the first day of bleeding. Divided into phases.
Secretion Phase (Days 15-28) Controlled by Progesterone, mucus & blood vessels increase. At the end of this phase, progesterone decreases and arteries contract due to drying, ischemia follows & tissue damage & bleeding starts again.
Phase of Proliferation (Days 5-15) Controlled by Estrogen. Body temperature increases. Functional layer grows, glands get bigger, spiral arteries form. Ovulation occurs around day 13-14.
Phase of Desquamation and Regeneration [menstruation] (Days 1-4) Progesterone disappears & Estrogens Increases. Endometrium is shed (bleeding). Epithelium & connective tissue of the functional layer regenerate from the basal layer & the wound is closed.
Salpingitis Inflammation (pelvic inflammatory disease, PID) and infection (gonorrhea and clamydial) of the Fallopian tubes, may lead to loss of the epithelium, this may interfere with fertilization which may lead to sterility.
Ischemia restriction of blood supply to tissues
Luteal Phase [2nd half of menstrual cycle (secretory phase)] Progesterone increases which causes endometrial layer growth.
Follicular Phase [1st half of menstrual cycle (menstruation & proliferation phase)] Estrogen Increases. Gonadotropin Hormones (FSH & LH) of the piturary gland act on the follicles of the ovary to maturate (then to release the ovum in the middle of the cycle).
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