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History 3263 Mod Fra

notes for the final exam

QuestionAnswer
1930s: Maginot Line -fortified border ran almost 200 miles along eastern border of Alsace and Lorraine; designed to protect what were seen as most vulnerable sections of the border - goal was to absorb first blow if Germany attacked them and shield so France could assembl
1930s: Maginot Line After war with Germany in 1924 they immediately started planning for the possibility of another war. -this was a new/diff strategy due to their ineffective strategy of being obsessed with the offensive; approved by Minister of War Andre Maginot
1930s: Appeasement and Munich Accords (signed by Champlain and Daladier) Daladier wanted France to stand by Czech protected and also avoid being in war -Champlain insisted that Czech compromise which resulted in the Munich Accords that forced the Czechs to hand over their German-speaking Sudeten border provinces to Hitler
1930s: Stavisky Riots in Feb. 6, 1934 -Riots against Fascism -Demonstrators erupted into violence in front of the French Chamber of Deputies in Paris; 14 ppl killed and 1500 injured
1930s: Stavisky Riots in Feb. 6, 1934 -origins back to a parliamentary scandal in Jan. "Stavisky Affair" - Stavisky an embezzler of Russian Jewish decent took control of a municipally owned bank; issued millions of francs of frad bonds in its name
1930s: Stavisky Riots in Feb. 6, 1934 found dead on Jan 9 & Jewish friends suggested that Rads had him killed out of embarrassment from profiteering -caused Rad Prime Min Chautemps to resign; Daladier replaced him and dismissed the conserv prefect of police Jean Chiappe triggerin feb 6 riot
1930s: Croix de Feu- Colonel de la Rocque -most dangerous development in 1930s -40,000-400,000 members by 1936 -nationalist and anti-democratic group originally made of veterans but attracted many traditional conserv. after Doumergue failed to secure a strengthening of the executive in Nov. 193
1930s: Croix de Feu- Colonel de la Rocque fielded a parliamentary force that far exceeded any other org. & staged military style parades and motorcades to intimidate workers in France's urban centers -seemed most promising way to rid nation of its enemies restore order& end political/econ. crisi
1930s: PC Leader (French Communist Party)Maurice Thorez one of France's most vociferous defenders of democracy against fascicm -extended a hand to socialists & Rads ad catholics -a major supporter of the Popular Front
1930s: Radical Leader: Edouard Herriot -elected through the rads/soc forming an electoral alliance -Cut Gov. spending & reduced debt -socialists refused to take ministerial pos., causing deadlock -6 min rise/fall in 18mths; no action taken to address it
1930s: Radical Leader: Edouard Daladier Returned to power in April 1938 -was the man that ppl saw would: 1. cut the 40-hr workweek, 2. put France "back to work" on managements terms, 3. & strengthen the state in the face of the increasingly menacing Nazi threat abroad & far Right at home
1930s: Radical Leader: Pierre Laval reviled and unpopular: much to the Right -economic front: bypassed legis. all together, using emergency decree laws to cont. Doumergue and Flandins policy of deflation, cutting wages, raising taxes, reducing war pensions & cutting income on bonds by 10%
1930s: SFIO leader Leon Blum were unwilling to compromise their freedom and stayed with SFIO instead of going to PC -ideals of SFIO closely resemble Jaures' -trained in the elite Ecole Normale Superieure but lacked warmth and exuberance
1930s: Popular Front Coalition: PC, SFIO, and 1930s: Radicals (1936-1938) -The alliance of the Left formed from being frightened by the violence of the Feb 6 riots and alarmed that France might go the way of Italy or Germany -put an unprecedented electoral alliance together by all three -Leon Blum was prime min
1930s: Popular Front Coalition: PC, SFIO, and Radicals (1936-1938) -The alliance of the Left Goals- preservation of peace/reaffirmation of democracy at home & abroad -gave hope to many citizens in France that the Republic could be reinvigorated from below -terrified conservs saw it as a threat to property and infiltration of France by foreigner
1930s: Strike and Matignon Accords: May-Aug. 1936 SFIO became the leading party in the Chamber, Leon Blum became the Prime Min of the Pop Front; Blum wanted2 show that he stood for democracy, not revolution. He refused to take office until separating the May elec from the convocation of the new Nat Assem
1930s: Strike and Matignon Accords: May-Aug. 1936 However, he lost iniative to a militant social movement from below, which resulted in strikes
1930s: Socialist vs Radicals Socialist: had to follow one's conscience; "product of injustice and pity"; ideal purposes and collective good
1930s: SFIO leader Leon Blum -tried to preserve the unity of the part by forging a compromise that the SFIO would remain commited to the "conquest of power" and the revolutionary transformation of the existing order
Fourth Republic: Le Monde ("The World") A newspaper of record
Fourth Republic: Provisional Government (1944-46) under de Gualle France avoided civil war & balkanization -1st con. of colonial admin 2draw up signif reforms 2implement after return of peace -charge of fraught trans from war2 peace; used bureacracy, military & public ceremoney2 reasset state author
Fourth Republic: Provisional Government (1944-46): Rebuilding Politically restore the Repub & preserve its empire; would have2be democratic, ethical, socially progressive & more representative -new gov should be "effective" -resisters want2 renew the nations elite drawing on the Resistance's demo, progr, action-oriented leade
Fourth Republic: Provisional Government (1944-46): Restoring Internal Order and Military prestige internal Resistence army was incorporated into the resurrected French army on Sept 23, 1944 -by 45 they mobilized 18 divisions, or 500,000 troops, to take part in final campaigns on the w. front of Germany -took part in large campaigns and colonial troo
Fourth Republic: Provisional Government (1944-46) -Created the Consultive Assembly, which advised de Gualle but had no real power -on April 24, 1944: Women's Suffrage (right to vote)
Fourth Republic: Tripartism: PC, SFIP, MRP (Christian Democrats)* all dislike de Gualle -Comm wanted a one-house leg, arguing that an upper house would serve as a reactionary restraint of pop sovereignty -Soc agreed but suspicious of PC intent 2absorb them -MRP wanted 2-house leg. afraid comm would dominate & take po
Fourth Republic: Jan 1946: de Gaulle withdraws He withdraws out of frustration with the three leading parties not being able to come to agreements -He thought the ppl would be devasted but the parties were okay with him being gone. -He remained out of power for 12 years
Fourth Republic: 1947: PC Withdraws socialist Paul Ramadier (prime min) clashed with the PC (communist) over his attempting to tame inflation with a series of deflationary policies, including wage freezes, tough med at a time of continuing shortages and hardship
Fourth Republic: 1947: PC Withdraws wave of strikes in Spring that put pressure on PC: 1 state-owned Renault plant, 2. rail strike (both communist led) -gave reason for Ramadier to expel communists from governing coalition and fired the ministers
Fourth Republic: Marshall Plan: (1947-1948) US Sec of State George C. Marshall -financial assistance to help rebuild Europe -France received 2nd most funding (20%)
Fourth Republic: Immobilisme
Fourth Republic: "Economic Miracle" -Same old politics are grafted onto the beginnings of the most dynamic economic growth since the 2nd Empire -car manufacturing (France were pioneers), aerospace -increased productivity after wa
Fourth Republic: "Economic Miracle" Renault's 4 chevaux: prominent register and engineer; baby car (1st postwar success story); nationalized in 1945 Citrogen's 2 chevaux: "2 horse" car for farmers
Fourth Republic: More Fourth Republic Growth reasons -baby boom -determination after humiliation from war -Labor unions cooperating -Labor productivity increases by 5% -$2.8 million from Marshall Aid Immigrant labor
Fourth Republic: Jean Monnet -Economic modernization made possible by dirigsme ('state planning') under him (tractors, transportation, trains, etc.) -Monnet Plan: France's #1 priority rebuilding infrastructure
Fourth Republic: General Planning Commission (CGP) new plannin sys 4 the econ -sim 2 Vichy Org Committees, included high-level industrialists, & bus managers -included reps from labor movement, had a real voice; explains why labor supported plans even though plans imposed hardships on wrkn ppl
Fourth Republic: General Planning Commission (CGP) -2nd plan (1952-57) addressed problems for food production, housing, and reg. dev -massive new construction of low-cost public housing, & gov built 300,000 housing units a yr (end of decade)
Fourth Republic: Cradle-to-grave welfare
Fourth Republic: Family Allowances -originally for head of household but changed to person having "effective & permanent care of children" given to parents if their children were in school and received med check-ups
Fourth Republic: European Coal and Steel Community (1951) -among 6 in the nation (Italy, Neth, Lux, France, Ger, Belgium) -designed to control & coordinate the production of coal & steel w/in community -both had been essential to the war (F/Ger) industries and remained essential to postwar econ recovery
Fourth Republic: Treaty of Rome (1957) most important step in creating European integration -created European Economny community, or Common Market; creates a Free Trade Sone throughout Europe -Britain refused to join
Fourth Republic: Treaty of Rome Provisions -Tariffs within EEC reduced to zero within 15 years -Coordination of economic and social processes -Inevitable friction based on divergent economic interests -Economic cooperation and free trade essential also to France’s economic miracle
Fourth Republic: Franco-German Partnership Clementel 1918: harness Germany's econ 2the rest of Eur instead of punishin -Monnet pushed econ integration -goal 2make Eur more united -argued that no country can compete w US econ or mili but various countries 2gether counter-bal & retain independen
Decolonization: French Union (1946) -4th Rep not ready to relinquish power and convinced overseas territories were necessary to retaining Great Power status and rebuilding France's Ecn., that no colonial ppl were yet capable of self-gov
Decolonization: French Union -Art. 81 in Constitution “All French nationals and all people who are subjects of the French Union have the quality of citizen of the French Union, which entitles them to the rights and liberties guaranteed in the preamble of the present Constitution.”
Decolonization: FIDES fund -1st time investing $ of their own -equivalent of 452 million dollars by 1957
Decolonization: Massacre and Reprisals at Setif, Algeria (May 8, 1945) -103 settlers killed -nationalists were taking advantage of end of the war to -French claim 6000-8000 were killed -Algerians: 45,000 killed in retaliation by France
Decolonization: Ho chi Minh, General Giap and Viet Minh -Japan overthrew entire French colonial regime, arresting gov leaders and killing any who resisted, destroying the illusion of French's superiority -created a Provisional Gov & began negotiation with the Allies for what they hoped would be independence
Decolonization: Ho chi Minh, General Giap and Viet Minh could not control the south and new negotiations began; in 1946 french tried to retake the north killin 6000 Viets starting Indonesia war -after war became leader of N. Viet
Decolonization: Pierre Mendès-France (Radical Prime Minister-PM 1954) -promised (and kept it) if he was PM then he would end Indo war in a month or resign -Geneva Accords: June 1954 were signed to create two new independent countries, Laos and Cambodia
Decolonization: Dien Bien Phu (March- May 1954)
Decolonization: Geneva Accords -called for nationwide elecs in Viet to determine ultimate fate -meanwhile any1 that wished to cross was allowed passage to the north or south of the 17th parallel -US cancelled 1956 elections -American military involv. against Viet communists (Vietcon
Decolonization: Geneva Accords -Pierre Mendes-France: one of the bright lights of 4th repub; negotiated Geneva Accords -needed to let go of empire, modernize economy, raise standards of living, & reduce social inequality
Decolonization: Dien Bien Phu (Mar-May 1954)
Decolonization: FLN (National Liberation Front) 1956: Carmen reading -Had formed a Secret Organization in 1947 to prepare for armed struggle against the world’s fourth largest army (France’s!) -FLN leaders in 1956: Ben Bella, Boudiaf, Mohammed Boudiaf, and Ait Ahmed.
Decolonization: Harki (Algerian Loyal to France) loyalists who fought on France's side
Decolonization: Red All Saint's Day- Nov. 1, 1954 6 young militants launched a series of 30 attacks across Algeria against the French and any Algerians who sympathized with them -marked the start of the Algerian War
Decolonization: "Pieds noirs" black feet=settlers
Decolonization: Guy Mollet (Socialist Prime Minister 1956-57) - (Nat Assembly supported) sent a proposal to set aside individual freedoms in Algeria and to permit the police and French soldiers to use "extended questioning," "coercive measures," or "special treatment"
Decolonization: General Jacques Massu and the Battle of Algiers (1957)
Decolonization: Henri Alleg, The Question (book) -member of Algerian Communist Party and editor of Alger Republican until it was banned in 1955 -published an acct of his own arrest and torture at the hands of French military
Decolonization: Crisis of May 13 – May 29, 1958 -french cabinet rumored 2b ready 2negotiate a French pullout with the FLN -some french generals revolted in the cap cities of Algiers, seizing control of the local gov & demanding the formation of an emergency gov in Paris -4th couldn't resolve crisis
Decolonization: “Je vous ai compris” (I have understood you) a famous quote that promised nothing but projects the image that de Gaulle is on their side -after the May crisis it gives de Gaulle power to form a new cabinet and to draw up a new constitution -insisted on presidential sys. with a powerful exec. branc
Decolonization: Jan. 24-31, 1960 and April 22, 1961 coups in Algiers Jan: Army Rebellion in Algiers April: Second army rebellion: April 22, 1961, after 78% of French voters approve of negotiations with the FLN on the basis of Algerian independence. Generals Salan, Zeller, Jouhaud and Challe lead this rebellion
Decolonization: OAS (Secret Army Organization) -Formation of OAS in May 1961 -Orgy of violence in Algiers and Paris as peace talks open later that year -kills 27 ppl before brought
Decolonization: Evian Accords, signed on March 18, 1962 -Granted Algerian independence (French cits) of oil, fields, etc. -Settlers had to leave everything & Algeria -signed by de Gaulle and the Algerian gov-in-exile signed -99% of French voters approved the referendum in April and 99% Algerians on July 1
Decolonization: Evian Accords, signed on March 18, 1962 -can travel to both places but no voting rights -French oil comps are allowed to stay -granted orderly transfer of power, guarantees for french settler life and property in Algeria, and the preservation of French commercial and strategic interests -
Decolonization: Exodus -24, 614 French soldiers killed -4000 French civilian losses -Probably close to 500,000 Algerian casualties (proportionately equivalent to France’s casualties in WWI) -No war memorials in France for the French who served
"Les Trente Glorieuses" (30 Glorious Years) -1945 end of WWII to 1974 Oil Crisis -planned emergence of New France -Decline of the rural population -Expansion of the industrial working and middle classes -Birth of the welfare state and consumer society -Le baby boom
"Les Trente Glorieuses": HLM (subsidized housing)in Marseilles -provided for workers -Worker integration
"Les Trente Glorieuses": Immigration -influx of foreigners into the French workforce -National Immigration Office -1.7 million in 1945 to 3.4 million in 1975 -Foreigners make up 6.5% of population
"Les Trente Glorieuses": Immigration -Shift in Origins of Immigration -1946 12% of immigrants come from N. Africa & 88% come from other Euro countries (Belgium, It, Sp, Port, Pol) -1975 39% of immigrants come from N. Africa, particularly Algeria -Poles 1st, then N. Africans, then sub-Sah Africans & Asians: 3 waves of immi
"Les Trente Glorieuses": Bidonville (shanty town) -in postwar France -working assembly line like jobs -2 out of 5 workers are immigrants
"Les Trente Glorieuses": Cadre (manager) - people in a position in their workplace who are given a degree of responsibility for supervising others -Expansion of Middle Class
"Les Trente Glorieuses": cadre superieur (Senior manager) -political and economic super elite
"Les Trente Glorieuses": Grandes ecoles (Great Schools) vs universities -developed after the war -if you have your Bacc you can automatically go to a university
"Les Trente Glorieuses": Grandes ecoles (Great Schools) vs universities -they are smaller (100 students/yr) -have much more $(30% of the nat. university budget with only 4% of the students) -kept apart from the rest of the educational system, fierce comp of the students & the schools among themselves -grads always the bos
"Les Trente Glorieuses": Grandes ecoles (Great Schools) vs universities Name of Great schools: Ecole Nationale d’Administration (ENA) and Ecole Polytechnique (X) -look at ppt for uni vs GS comparison
"Les Trente Glorieuses": Grandes ecoles (Great Schools) vs universities the Presidents of France and the Prime Minister, most of the cabinet members, most CEO of major companies (more than 30 out of the 40 companies of CAC-40, the index of the Paris Stock Exchange) are all graduates of the top grandes ecoles
"Les Trente Glorieuses": Advent of consumer society -
"Les Trente Glorieuses": Bikini and Brigitte Bardot (movie « And God Created Woman ») 1956
"Les Trente Glorieuses": Club Med (1950) -vacation conglomerate; 1of the lasting signs of the new affluence -"antidote 2 civilization" -island on Majorca where participants would stay in US army surplus tents, play sports, and dance all night under the stars -detoxify the body/revivify the s
The Gaullist Decade: De Gaulle’s Fifth Republic (Sept. 4, 1958) -de Gaulle revealed new constitution -would be a president w/fair roles b/t the diff branches of gov.
The Gaullist Decade: De Gaulle’s Fifth Republic (Sept. 4, 1958) -President term every 7 years by electoral college (70,000) -French celebration as a nation of registers rather than revolutionary republicans -Resist pedigree and martyr that everyone who had lived through the Occupation could embrace
The Gaullist Decade: force de frappe (independent nuclear capacity) -strike force -1of de Gaulle's 1st for pol objec 2ensure French membership in the nuclear club by continuing the dev of France's nuclear capacity (4th repub) -guarantee French sovereignty & let the gov 2assert own interests& protect permanent seat on the UN Sec Counci
The Gaullist Decade: Vespas (motor scooters), transistors, and telephones -transistors: -Vespas (motor scooters-symbols of freedom and imagination -telephones
The Gaullist Decade: Françoise Hardy and Johnny Hallyday -two rock icons -Filapacci made them into pop teen idols -Hallday was the most photographed man after de Gaulle -Hardy sold 2 million copies of her 1962 recording "All the Boys and Girls"
The Gaullist Decade: Daniel Cohn-Bendit or Danny the Red -occupied the Nanterre's university's admin block after a student was arrested for suspicion of involvement in some radical Lefists bombing the American Express Office in Paris -became a virtual media star
The Gaullist Decade: Nanterre and Sorbonne -Nanterre: negl arts &sciences faculty hastily built in 1964 on land occupied by bidonvilles -overly crowded; no cafes, bookstores, restaurants -didn't allow students to express grievances -Mar 68 protests erupted& lects halted -Min of ed closed campu
The Gaullist Decade: Nanterre and Sorbonne Sorbonne: most prestigious campus of the University of Paris -student agitation moved here too -May 3 lectures/sem suspended and police arrested student leaders even though latter agreed to leave silently - 100s of students protested police invasion
The Gaullist Decade: Nanterre and Sorbonne -students taunted police; pol attacked w/ tear gas causing 500 arrests -gathered cobblestones, overturned cars to build barricades -protests went through high schools & battles of stud/CRS(riot police) police began -sympathy fell on students across nat
The Gaullist Decade: Nanterre and Sorbonne -ended with Pompidou backing down and reopening Sorbonne -widened the movement & students organized self-gov of their recaptured universities -demonstrations continued on basis of real issue in 1968 -mockin authority, liberating themselves & society
The Gaullist Decade: Nanterre and Sorbonne -started sit-ins and addressed issues of: feminism, gay rights, built/natural environment, nature of democracy/revolution, alienation, commodity culture
The Gaullist Decade: strike wave and autogestion (self-management) -1st workers were against students but police brutality created a convergence bt them & started 24hr strike May 13 -Soon nationalized aviation industry, Renault fact, railway, postal, white collar sectors went on strike on May 23-4 7-11mill out of 14mil
The Gaullist Decade: Grenelle Accords -After de Gaulle's speach promising a referandum in June failed to calm riots -Pompidou: created Accords with 35% increase in minimum wage, across board wage hike of at least 10%, return to 40-hr workweek, and promise of union representation at workplace
The Gaullist Decade: Grenelle Accords - it didn't calm the people and they turned it down, wanting a "gov for the people" -wanted more decision making in issues that concerned them
The Gaullist Decade: Baden Baden, Germany (de Gaulle meets with Massu) -consulted head of French forces and have 20,000 soldiers moved to border -assured his support in exchange for a pardon of generals who rebelled in Algeria -this gave de Gaulle confidence to go back and tell everyone: "de Gaulle or civil war"
The Gaullist Decade: Simone Weil Law (1975) Legalizing abortion (17 January 1975), her hardest political fight
The Gaullist Decade: Haby Law (1975) -merged 2kinds of colleges, ended tracking of students at age 11 & giving pub primary school students preparation needed 2advance 2a lycee (high school) -talented students from working-class or lower middle-class could aspire higher status in life via ed
The Gaullist Decade: Gauchistes Greens, feminists, gay activists
Collaboration: French State at Vichy -French moved here after the end of exodus and armistice entered into effect in June 1940 -attracted opportunists and politicians who lost power in 1930s; occasion to take revenge on their pol enemies
Collaboration: Pierre Laval -becoming a popular politician again, in the Vichy district
Collaboration: Prime Minister Maréchal Pétain initiated armistice negotiations; helped 2 legitimize French's new gov - June 1940: announced "the fighting must stop"; after Armistice was signed, French men confused in the midst of battle: some continued to fight & some didn't, capturing 1 million me
Collaboration: Mers-el-Kebir (July 4 1940) and Toulon (scuttling of the navy) Brit demanded French either turn over or cuttle the squadron of French warships anchored off the coast of Algeria @ the narrow harbors of Mers-el-Kebir -French refused, the Royal Navy sank ship 1270 sailors died -temp. saw Brit as greater enemy than Ger
Collaboration: Service de Travail Obligatoire (STO – obligatory labor service) -after failed attempt of french workers to volunteer to work in Ger allowin French POWS to be repatriated; program called la releve (mili. unit replaces another on front line), -required all 18-35 2register for labor service; many desig. 2volunteer 4Ger
Collaboration: Robert Paxton -Historian that stated France in Aug 1944 was on the brink of civil war
Collaboration: Prime Minister Maréchal Pétain -passed Four Constitutional Acts ending Third Republic; cap in Vichy -became head of state with no Assembly -Vichy laws applied to both zones
Collaboration: National Revolution -immediately launched an extensive set of domestic policy initiatives at home and overseas -goal to restore to France an authoritarian system with at least a regal leader, Petain, as its central figure
Collaboration: National Revolution economic: corporatism, harked back old regime corporate bodies, such as guilds, which had served as the fundamental productive unit in a pre-industrial economy -"Return of the Soil" reverse French "rural exodus" or movement of pop from rural 2urban areas
Collaboration: National Revolution aimed to reinforce Catholicism and traditional morality in France -overhaled public schools, conservs held responsible for corrupting young -introduced teaching of trad morality and obedience -Travail, Famille, Patrie (work, family, fatherland)
Collaboration: Fascism -fourth group of outsiders that assembled at Vichy and least influential at first -saw teh situation in 1940 as opportunity; applauded Frances defeat -pressed Vichy leaders to mold new state along facist lines (single party with own paramilitary
Collaboration: Fascism -grew disillusioned with the traditionalists -most quit and returned to Paris, published denouncing Vichy, the Resistance, and the Jews -no facist given power in 1940
Collaboration: Armistice -Armistice goes into affect June 25; no formal peace -Annexation of Alsace Lorraine -Detainment of the first “undesirables”: 100,000 Communists, Socialists and some Jews are rounded up and put into camps.
Collaboration: La Milice (Militia)-- René Bousquet -Orig. the Service d'Ordre Legionnaire, given official recog Jan 1942 -police offic. who oversaw the massive round up of Jews in Paris 1942 -French-style Gestapo that hunted down and killed Resistance fighters and others wanted by the German authoritie
Collaboration: Statut des juifs (Jewish Statute)
Collaboration: Vel d’hiv (short for Vélodrome d’hiver or winter cycling stadium)
Collaboration: Traditionalism attracts backward-looking traditionalists. Vichy was more traditionalist than fascist. It adopts a series of domestic economic and social reforms, the “National Revolution” -also embrace corporatism
Collaboration: Fascism Vichy had Fascist Elements: 1) its authoritarianism (the Milice). 2) Its anti-semitism and xenophobia. Vichy does not wait for Hitler to act against Jews.
Collaboration: Traditionalism All trade unions are dissolved, on the basis that they created “artificial” class conflict. Strikes and lock-outs are banned. In their place Vichy promised a new economy, in which social harmony would prevail: corporatism.  
Collaboration: Corporatism -idea that owners, managers, and workers were to be organized into natural economic groupings or corporations for each branch of the economy -
Collaboration: Corporatism -These would eliminate competing interests and everyone would work together for the best interests of their sector. Employers would “naturally” lead these corporations, while workers lost the independent voice that their unions had guaranteed.
Collaboration: Technocrats (experts) -attracts all kind of experts -German demands requires state planning of the eco -empower France’s engineers, economists, & other kinds of experts 2retool French indus 2meet German demands
Collaboration: Technocrats (experts) These experts are graduates of some of France’s most elite schools, the sons of the upper middle classes
Collaboration: The Sorrow and the Pity (Documentary by Marcel Ophuls, 1971) -took a pitiless look at the ugly side of life under the German occupation -funded by French government TV station
Created by: 567811981