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Stack #111653

digestive system

digestive systemchapter 8
an/o anus, ring
cec/o cecum
chol/e bile, gall
col/o, colon/o colon, large intestine
enter/o small intestine
esophag/o esophagus
gastr/o stomach, belly
hepat/o liver
cholecyst/o gallbladder
-lithiasis presence of stones
pancreat/o pancreas
-pepsia, peps/i, pspt/o digest, digestion
proct/o anus and rectum
rect/o rectum, straight
sigmoid/o sigmoid colon
aliment/o to nourish
major structures of digestive system oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and rectum and anus
accessory organs related to digestive system liver, gallbladder and pancreas
upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract mouth, esophagus, and stomach
lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract bowels, small intestine, large intestines, rectum and anus
labia lips, also cheil/o
palate roof of mouth, hard and soft, rugae - irregular fidges in hard palate, uvula - free edge of soft palate, helps produce sounds
papillae taste buds
under side of tongue highly bascular - containing many blood vessels
dentition natural teeth arranged in maxillary and mandibular arches
primary dentition deciduoud dentition, baby teeth, 20
permanent dentition replace primary teeth, 32
occlusion any contact between chewing surfaces of maxillary and mandibular teeth
odont/i, odont/o teeth, tooth
gingiva gums
3 pairs of salivary glands parotid - in front of and slightly lower than each ear, sublingual - underside of tongue, submandibular - floor of mouth
esophagus gullet, leads from pharynx to stomach
lower esophageal sphincter cardiac sphincter, controls flow between esophagus and stomach
3 parts of stomach fundus-upper, body-main, and antrum-lower
rugae folds in mucosa lining of stomach, produce gastric juices that sid in digestion
pylorus narrow passage conecting stomach with small intestine, pyloric sphincter contols flow from stomach to duodenum
3 parts of small intestine duodenum-first portion, jejunum-middle portion, ileum-last portion conects to cecum of large intestine, ileocecal sphincter controls flow
3 major parts of large intestine cecum, colon, rectum and anus
cecum connected to ileum and begining of colon, appendix hangs from lower portion
4 segments of colon ascending-travels upward from cecum to undersurface of liver, transverse-passes horizontally toward spleen, descending-travels down abdominal cavity, sigmoid-s shaped structure that joins with rectum
anorectal rectum-last division of large intestine, anal sphincter controls flow of waste
liver removes excess glucose from blood stream and stores it, destroys old erythrocytes, secretes bile containing enzymes that break down fat,
bilirubin pigment produced from destruction of hemoglobin
gallbladder stores and concentrates bile for later use
pancreas secretes juices made up of sodium bicarbonate to help neutralize stomach acids and digestive enzymes to process protein, carbohydrates and fats in food
metaboism sum of anabolism (building up of body cells from mutrients) and catabolism (breaking down body cells to release energy)
mastication chewing
peristalsis series of wavelike contraction of smooth muscles in single direction
role of small intestine emulsification-bile breaks apart large glovules into smaller parts so enzymes in pancreatic juices can digest tha fats
role of large intestine excess water is absorbed and solid feces/stools are formed, solids are expelled through rectum and anus
dentist specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of teeth and tissues of oral cavity
gastroenterologist specialized in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of stomach and intestines
internist specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of internal organs
orthdontist specialist in prevention or correction of abnormalities in positioning of teeth and related facial structures
periodontist specialist who prevents or treats disorders of tissues surrounding teeth
proctologist specialized in disorders of colon, rectum, and anus
aphthous ulcers canker sores, recurrent blister like sores that break and form lesions on soft tissues lining mouth
herpes labialis cold sores or fever blisters, caused by herpes simplex virus
bruxism involumtary grinding or clenching of teeth
dental caries tooth decay, cavity
halitosis bad breath
-phagia swallowing
esophageal reflux gastroesophageal reflux disease, GERD, upward flow of stomach acid into esophagus
esophageal varices enlarged and swollen veins at lower end of esophagus
hiatal hernia protrusion of part of stomach through esophageal sphincter in diaphragm
paptic ulcer PU, lesion of mucous membranes of digestive system
achlorhydria absence of hydrochloric acid from gastric secretions
eructation act of belching
aerophagia spasmodic swallowing of air followed by eructations
emesis vomiting
diverticulum pouch or sac occuring in lining or wall of tubular organ
spastic colon irritalbe bowel syndrome, IBS
ileus temporary stoppage of intestinal peristalsis with severe pain, distention, vomiting, absence of stool passage, fever, and dehydration
volvulus twisting of intestine on itself that causes an obstruction
intussusception telescoping of one part of intestine into the opening of an immediately adjacent part
inguinal hernia protrusion of small loop of bowel through a weak place in lower abdominal wall or groin
hemorrhoids piles, enlarged veins in or near anus that may cause pain and bleeding
melena passage of black stools containing digested blood
cirrhosis progressive degenerative disease ultimately results in hepatic failure
biliary calculus gallstone,
abdominal CT, CAT scan computed tomography, produces detailed cross section of tissue structure within the abdomen
upper GI series, lowe GI series barium swallow, barium enema, barium is used as a contrast medium to make structures visible
hemoccult fecal occult blood test, FOBT, test for hidden blood in stools
antiemetic prevents or relieves nausea and vomiting
emetic produces vomiting
palatoplasty surgical repair of cleft palate
-pexy surgical fixation
choledocholithotomy incision in common bile duct for removal of gallstones
Created by: worker