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Stack #111524

Muscles of the lower limb Stack #111524

MuscleOriginInsertionInnervationActionMuscle group
Psoas Major Transverse Processes, sides and intervertebral discs of vertebrae T12 & L1-5. Lesser Trochanter Lumbar plexus Hip and trunk flexor Hip adductor
Iliacus (a band across) the upper 2/3rds of Iliac Fossa Lesser Trochanter Femoral Nerve L2,L3 Hip flexor Hip adductor
Gluteus Maximus 1) Ilium posterior to Posterior Gluteal Line 2) dorsal surface of sacrum & coccyx 3) sacrotuberous ligament Superficial fibres insert into Iliotibial Tract, Deep fibres onto Gluteal Tuberosity (posterior femur) Inferior Gluteal Nerve (The EARL of Hip!) Hip Extensor Hip Lateral Rotator Hip Abductor Gluteals
Gluteus Medius Gluteal surface of Ilium, between posterior and anterior Gluteal Lines Greater Trochanter Superior Gluteal Nerve MEDIAL hip rotator (medius=medial rotation) Hip ABDuctor (its at the side of the pelvis) Gluteal
Gluteus Minimus (smallest gluteal with largest attachment) Gluteal surface of Ilium between Anterior and Inferior Gluteal Lines Greater Trochanter Superior Gluteal Nerve (actions identical to Medius) MEDIAL hip rotation & thigh ABDUCTION gluteals
Tensor Fasciae Latae Anterior Superior Iliac Spine (ASIS) Anterior part of Iliac Crest Inserts into ITT at level of Greater Trochanter Superior Gluteal Nerve (TFL lies superior to GlutMed and GlutMin, on anterior Ilium ) MEDIAL hip rotation Hip ABDUCTION ('cos its at side of pelvis) Knee extension (pulls ITT taut)
Piriformis Anterolateral surface of sacrum Greater Trochanter Sacral Plexus Lateral rotation of thigh Deep lateral hip rotators
Gemellus Superior Gluteal face of ischial spine The Gemelli twins Blend with the Tendon of Obturator Internus as it attaches to the GREATER TROCHANTER Sacral plexus Lateral hip rotator. Also abducts flexed thigh. Deep lateral hip rotators
Obturator Internus Internal face of Obturator membrane and adjacent bone Greater Trochanter Sacral Plexus Lateral hip rotation Deep lateral hip rotators
Gemellus Inferior Ischial tuberosity The Gemelli twins Blend with the Tendon of Obturator Internus as it attaches to the GREATER TROCHANTER Sacral plexus Lateral hip rotation. Also abducts flexed thigh. Deep lateral hip rotators
Obturator Externus External face of obturator membrane (and adjacent bony margins) Trochanteric fossa of femur Obturator Nerve (because it exits the pelvis via the Obturator Foramen, along with the Obturator Nerve) Lateral hip rotation Deep lateral hip rotators
Quadratus Femoris Ischial tuberosity Quadrate Tubercule of femur Sacral plexus Lateral hip rotation Deep lateral hip rotators
Pectineus Pecten of pubis (superior pubic ramus) Pectineal Line on posterior femur (i.e. from Lesser Trochanter to top of Linea Aspera) Femoral nerve, sometimes Obturator too. Adducts and flexes thigh. (mnemonic=Pectineus does sweet F A) hip adductors
Adductor Brevis Body and Inferior Ramus of Pubis (mnemonic=GraB a Long cock) Upper half of Linea Aspera Obturator Thigh adduction hip adductors
Adductor Longus Depression on body of pubis just below Pubic Crest Middle third of Linea Asera Obturator Nerve Thigh adduction hip adductors
Adductor Magnus a wide curve taking in: (Adductor part) ischiopubic ramus and ischial tuberosity (Hamstring part) ischial tuberosity (Adductor part) Linea Aspera and medial Supracondylar Ridge (Hamstrings part) Supracondylar Ridge and Adductor Tubercule (Adductor part) Obturator Nerve (Hamstrings part) Sciatic Nerve (NB this pattern fits with groups) (Adductor part) Thigh adduction (Hamstrings part) Medial rotation hip adductors (also has hamstring part)
Gracilis Body and Inferior Ramus of Pubis Anteromedial surface of proximal tibia (into Pes Anserinus Tendon) Obturator nerve Adducts thigh (adductor group) Knee flexion & medial rotation hip adductors
Rectus Femoris (Straight head) arises AIIS (Reflected head) arises from groove above acetabular rim Patella tendon (to tibial tuberosity via ligamentum patella) Femoral Nerve Flexes hip, extends knee quadriceps
Vastus Medialis Medial Intertrochanteric Line, medial Linea Aspera, medial supracondylar line Patella tendon (to tibial tuberosity via ligamentum patella) Femoral Nerve Extends knee quadriceps
Vastus Intermedius Covers 2/3rds of anterior surface of femur Patella tendon (to tibial tuberosity via ligamentum patella) Femoral Nerve Extends knee quadriceps
Vastus Lateralis Lateral Intertrochanteric Line, lateral Linea Aspera & lateral supracondylar line Patella tendon (to tibial tuberosity via ligamentum patella) Femoral Nerve Knee extension quadriceps
Sartorius ASIS Anteromedial surface of proximal tibia (Pes Anserinus tendon) Femoral Nerve (think SAn Francisco) Hip flexion Knee flexion & medial rotation anterior thigh
Biceps Femoris Long head arises from Ischial Tuberosity Short head arises from distal half of linea aspera head of fibula (insertion is divided by lateral collateral ligament) Long head - Tibial Nerve Short head - Common Peroneal Nerve Extends hip, flexes knee Laterally rotates knee hamstrings
Semitendinosus Ischial Tuberosity Anteromedial surface of proximal tibia - Pes Anserinus tendon Tibial Nerve Knee flexion & Medial rotation Thigh extension (hamstring group) hamstrings
Semimembranosus Ischial tuberosity Groove on posteromedial surface of medial tibial condyle Tibial Nerve Extends hip, Flexes knee (hamstring group) Medially rotates knee hamstrings
Popliteus (Deep in Popliteal Fossa) Popliteal groove just above lateral femoral condyle. An area of triangular attachment on posterior proximal tibia, just above Soleal Line Tibial Nerve Popliteus Pulls the Femur Laterally posterior compartment of leg
Tibialis Posterior (greedy) Upper half of interosseous membrane and adjacent tibia and fibula surfaces (travels through tarsal tunnel to plantar foot) Primarily to Navicular and Medial Cuneiform. Attaches to all tarsal bones but not to talus, plus sustentaculum tali & bases of middle three mets. Tibial Nerve Inverts foot, plantarflexes ankle posterior compartment of leg (deep)
Plantaris Lower part of lateral supracondylar ridge Attaches either into Tendo Calcaneus on medial side, or makes its own connection to the posterior calcaneus, medially to the Tendo Calcaneus Tibial nerve Plantarflexes foot posterior compartment of leg (deep flexors)
Flexor Hallucis Longus Lower 2/3rds of Posterior Fibula and adjacent interossous membrane (runs through tarsal tunnel) attaches to base of distal hallux, plantar surface Tibial Nerve Flexes hallux, plantarflexes foot
Flexor Digitorum Longus Medial part of posterior tibia, below Soleal Line. (passes through tarsal tunnel) plantar surface of bases of middle and distal toes 2-5 Tibial Nerve Ankle plantarflexion, toe flexion posterior compartment of leg (deep flexors)
Soleus Sweeps across tibia in "s-shape" (from medial to lateral) following Soleal Line, with a fibrous arch over interosseous membrane and an attachment onto head and upper 2/3rds of shaft of fibula Tendo calcaneus (posterior calcaneus) Tibial Nerve Plantarflexes foot. Acts as Venous pump. Posterior compartment of leg (superficial)
Gastrocnemius 2 heads arise from medial and lateral femoral condyles. Medial head arises from distal end of medial supracondular ridge and groove above medial condyle. Lateral head arises from distal end of lateral supracondylar ridge and groove above lateral condyle Tendo calcaneus (posterior calcaneus) Tibial Nerve Flexes knee, plantarflexes foot (but not at same time !) posterior compartment of leg (superficial)
Peroneus Brevis Distal half of lateral fibula. (passes posterior to lateral malleolus) lateral aspect of base of 5th metatarsal Superficial Peroneal Nerve Everts foot, plantarflexes ankle lateral compartment of leg
Peroneus Longus Upper lateral surface of fibula & head of fibula. Lateral tibial condyle. (runs behind lateral malleolus and grooves under cuboid bone to plantar foot) Attaches to medial cuneiform and base of 1st met Superficial Peroneal Nerve Everts foot, plantarflexes foot lateral compartment of leg
Peroneus Tertius Distal quarter of fibula Dorsal proximal shaft of 5th metatarsal Deep Peroneal Nerve Ankle dorsiflexion Foot eversion anterior compartment of leg
Tibialis Anterior Upper 2/3rds of lateral surface of tibia & adjacent interosseous membrane Base of first metatarsal and medial cuneiform Deep Peroneal Nerve Dorsiflexes ankle, Inverts foot anterior compartment of leg
Extensor Hallucis Longus (lies between EDL and TibAnt) Middle half of anterior surface of fibula & adjacent interosseous membrane. Base of distal hallux, dorsal aspect Deep Peroneal Nerve Extends hallux, Dorsiflexes foot anterior compartment of leg
Extensor Digitorum Longus Upper 2/3rds of Fibula, adjacent interosseous membrane & lateral tibial condyle Base of middle & distal phalanges of toes 2-5 Deep Peroneal Nerve Ankle dorsiflexion, toe extension anterior compartment of leg
Iliotibial Tract (ITT) External ala of ilium behind ASIS lateral tibial condyle - shared aponeurosis for gluteus maximus and tensor fasciae latae help maintain knee extension in standing
Created by: georgealbertjnr