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respiratory-system 1

conducting-resoiratory zones

what is the function of te respiratory system -supply body w/oxygen and co2 -regulation of acid-base balance (gas exchange) -production of sound/speech -filtering inspired air
whata are the 4 distinct processes of te respiratory system -pulmonary ventilation -external respiration -internal respiration -transport of o2 and co2 between luns and tissues
what is the function of pulmonary ventilation move air in and out of the lungs
what is the function of external respiration gas exchange between lungs and tissues
what is the function of transporting 02 and co2 between lungs and tissues involing blood and cardiovascular system (lungs, cardio, blood)
what is the function of internal respiration gas exchange between blood vessels and tissues
what of the 4 distinct processses of the respiratory system preform pulmonary and external respiration
the respiratory system is slipt into 2 parts what are they top-conducting zone bottom-respiratory zone
what are the functions of the conducting zone peovide rigid conduits for air to reach site of gas exchange, includes all respiratory structures
what are the respiratory muscles diaphragm, external/internal intercostals, obilques, abdominis
what is the part the nose plays in respiratory system -only external part -provide air way for moisten, warming, filtering, cleaning, resonating chamber, housing olfactory receptors
how does the nose filter and clean air of foreign matters mucus and cilia of epithelial cells in the lining of nose
what houses the olfactory receptors nose
what does the nasal septum do in the nose divides nose into 2 sides
what bones provide roof of the nasal cavity ethmoid and sphenoid
what is the floor of the nasal cavity hard and soft palates
what does the paranasal sinus lighten the skull, help warm and moisten air
what is the pharynx throat
what does the pharynx look like funnel shaped tube of skeletal muscle
what does the pharynx connect -nasal cavity and mouth superiory -larynx and esophagus inferiorly
what are the 3 regions of the pharynx -upper-nasopharynx(posterior to nose) -middle-oropharynx(posterior to mouth) -lower-larynopharynx(connects esophagus and larynx)
of the upper pharynx what does the nasopharynx do air passageway
what closes the nasopharynx uvula and soft palate (to prevent food from entering nasal cavity)
what prevents food from entering the nasalpharynx uvula and solft palate closes
where is the pharyngeal tonsil located high on the posterior wall in the nasopharynx
where is the phsryntympanic tubes located open into the lateral walls of the nasopharynx
of the middle pharynx where is the oropharynx located back of toung and extends inferiorly from the solf palate to the epiglottis
what is the part the oropharynx plays in the pharynx serves as common passageway for food and air
where is the palatine and lingual tonsils located (middle pharynx) in oropharynx
of the lower pharynx where is the laryngopharynx located posterior to epiglottis extends to larynx to digestive pathway
of the (lower pharynx) what does the laryngopharynx do closes top of trachea so no food can enter airways
what is the larynx voice box
where is the larynx located attaches to hyoid bone and opens into the laryngopharynx superiorly, down through trachea
what are the 3 functions of the larynx cartilage to keep airway open, switching mechanism for air and food, voice production
what are the 4 structures of the larynx thyroid cartilage, epiglottis, cricoid cartilage, arytenoids
of 4 structures of the larynx where is the thyroid cartilage located above thyroid and parathyroid glands
what structures make the theyroid cartilage important adams apple, ovocal cords strung from and to arytenoids
of 4 structures of the larynx what does the epiglottis do larynx moves up so it covers trachea when swallowing (leaf shaped)
of 4 structures of the larynx where is the crioid located inferior most portion
of 4 structures of the larynx where is the arytenoids located superior to cricoid (paired and small)
what do the vocal ligaments attach to arytenoid and thyroid cartilage
what are the vocal ligaments made up of elastic fibeers that form mucosal folds called true vocal cords and false vocal cords
what are the true vocal cords vibrate to produce sound as air rushes up from lungs
where are the true vocal cords located (bottom) medial opening between them is glottis
what vocal cords do you get pitch and volume true
for pitch in males what do the true vocal cords look like thicker w/more slack
for pitch in females what do the true vocal cords look like thinner and tight
how does volume work for vocal cords how fast the air rushes past -whisper-low wind -yell-high wind
where are the false vocal cords located (top)superior of true cords
what are the false vocal cords mucosal folds that are close to glottis to help keep airways clean no involvement of sound production
what is the trachea windpipe
where is the trachea located anterior to esphagus and thoracic vertabrae, extends from end of larynx to primary bronchi
what does the trachea look like lined w/cilla mucous membrane, smooth muscle, c-shaped rings of cartilage to keep lumen open during exhalation
what does the trachea do traps and moves dust upward
what are the structures of the conducting zone external naris(nose hole), solf palate, internal naris, nasopharynx, uvula, oropharynx, epiglottis, laryngopharynx, false and true vocal cords
what are the structures of the respiratory zone primary,secondary,tertiary bronchi's, bronchioles, termenal bronchioles, respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, alveoli
where is the primary bronchi enter medially into lungs
where is the secondary bronchi branch from primary 1 for each lobe (3 in right, 2 in left)
smaller branching in lungs look like less cartilage and more smooth muscle
what can cause bronchodialation sympathic nerves, epinephrine, medications
where is the site of gas exchange alveoli
what are the 3 types of alveoli cells type I, type II, alveolar macrophages, respiratory macrophages
of the 3 type of alveoli cells what do the Type I cells do single layer of epithelial cells
of the 3 type of alveoli cells what do the Type II cells do secrete surfactant that keeps alveoli from collapsing(lowering surface tension), drying out
of the 3 type of alveoli cells what do the alveolar macrophages cells do cleaners
in the aveoli what does the respiratory membrane do create air blood barrior where gas exchange takes place
in the aveoli what is the respiratory membrane composed of alveolar and capillary walls
what are the features of the lungs right 3 lobes, left 2 lobes, broad bottom, pleural membrane
of the lung pleural membrane what does the parietal pleura attach to diaphragm and lining of thoracic wall
what 2 circulations are the lungs perfused by pulmonary, bronchial
what feeds the pulmonary capillary network around alveoli pulmonary arteries
where do the bronchial arteries arise from aorta
what provides systemic blood to lung tissue bronchial arteries
bronchial veins anastomose(join together) w/what veins pulmonary veins
pulmonary ventilation means what (simple) breathing
what are the 2 phases of pulmonary ventilation -inspiration(air flows into lungs) -expiration(gases exit the lungs)
what is the respiratory pressure atmospheric (Patm) 760mm/Hg
what is intrapulmonary pressure (Ppul) pressure within the aveoli
what is intrapleural pressure (Pip) pressure within plueural cavity
what 2 pressures flutctuate w/ breathing intralpulmonary and intraplural
what pressure eventually equals atmospheric pressure intrapulmonary
of the 3 pressures what is the lowest intraplural
what are the 2 forces that act to pull lungs away -elasticity(lungs to assume smallest possible) -surface tension(alveolar to smallest size)
what is the opposing force in lungs elasticity of chest walls pulls thorax outward
lung collape is caused by what pressures intrapleural and intrapulmonary
transpulmonary pressure does what keeps airways open difference (Ppul-Pip)
what does pulmonary ventilation depend on volume changes in thoracic cavity
what is Boyle's Law inversely proportional pressures and volumes of gases
when lungs are stretched what volume increases intrapulmonary(pressure in alveoli)
elastic lungs recoil passively and what volume decereases intrapulmonary(pressure in alveoli)
what are the 3 physical factors that influence ventilation -airway resistance -alveolar surface tension -lung compliance
what causes airway resistance friction
what is the formula for flow flow = pressure/resistance
what does pulmonary ventilation mean inhalation and exhalation
what depends on volume changes in thoracic cavity pulmonary ventilation (inhalation and exhalation)
gas flow is inversely proportional to resistance w/greatest resistance in the what medium-sized bronchi
amount of gas flowing in and out of alveoli is directly proportional to pressure gradient between what atmosphere and aveoli
as airway resistance rises breathing becomes more stenuous
severely constricted or obstructed bronchioles does what to ventilation -prevent life-susstaining ventilation -occur during acute asthma attacks
what does epinephrine do to bronchioles dilates and reduces air resistance
what is secreted by Type II cells Surfactant
what is surface tension in alveolars attraction of liquid molecules to one another at liquid-gas interface
what does the liquid coating do to alveoli reduces them to the smallest size possiable
what does surfactant do reduces surface tension and keeps them from collapsing
what is lung compliance measure of change in lung volume that occurs w/given change in transpulmonary pressure
how is lung compliance determined by -distensibility of lung tissue and surrounding thoracic cage -surface tension of alveoli
what diminishes lung compliance TB(Scar tissue), blockage of smaller passagway by mucus or fluid(phenmonia),low surfactant production, decreased flexility of thoracic cage
what decreases flexibility of thoracic cage deformities, ossification of costal cartilage, paralysis of intercostal muscles
what are the 4 respiratory volumes -tidal volume(TV) -inspiratory reserve volume(IRV) -expiratory reserve volume(ERV) -residual volume(RV)
of the 4 respiratory volumes what is TV (tidal volume) normal breathing (in and out each breath) avg.500ml
of the 4 respiratory volumes what is the average TV (tidal volume) 500ml
of the 4 respiratory volumes what is inspiratory reserve volume(IRV) deep breath (forcibly inspired air beyond TV) avg. range 2100-3200ml
of the 4 respiratory volumes what is expiratory reserve volume (ERV) exhaled air from lungs beyond TV avg. range 1000-1200ml
of the 4 respiratory volumes what is residual volume (RV) air left in lungs after max expirstion avg. 1200ml
what is respiratory capacities add 2 or more volumes together
what is inspiratory capacity (IC) total of air that can be inspired after a tidal expiration (IRV+TV)(DEEP BREATH + NORMAL BREATH)
of respiratory capacitys what is the formula for IC IRV + TV
of respiratory capacity's what is functional residual capacity (FRC) amount of air remaining in the lungs after tidal expiration (RV + ERV)
of respiratory capacity's what is vital capacity (VC) total amount of exchangeable air (TV + IRV + ERV)
of respiratory capacity's what is total lung capacity (TLC) sum of all volumes (6000 ml)
of respiratory capacity's what is the formula for FRC (functional residual capacity) RV + ERV residual volume + expiratory reserve volume
of respiratory capacity's what is the formula for VC (vital capacity) TV + IRV + ERV
what are the 2 kinds of dead spaces anatomical-volume of conducting passages(150ml) alveolar-cease to act in gas exchange due to obstruction or collapse
of 2 kinds of dead spaces what is the anatomical dead space volume of conducting passages avg. 150 ml
how do you calculate anatomical dead space 1 ml per pound of weight
2 kinds of dead spaces what is alveolar dead space alveoli that ceases in gas exchange due to collapse or obstuction
why do you perform a pulmonary function test to get volume and capasity
how do you figure TV (tidal volume) IC - IRV
of pulmonary function tests what does a spirometry test distinguish between what to disorders obstructive pulmonary disease(increased airway resistance), restrictive disorders(reduction in total lung capacity)
what is obstructive pulomonary disease increased airway resistance
what are restrictive disorders reduction in total lung capacity from structural or functional lung changes
of pulmonary function tests what does total ventilation do total amount of gas flow in or out of respiratory tract in 1 minute
of pulmonary function tests what does (FVC) forced vital capacity do gas forcibly(beyond normal) after taking deep breath
of pulmonary function tests what does (FEV) forced expiratory volume do amount of gas expelled(beyond normal) during specific time intervals of the FVC
of pulmonary function tests (MVR) minute volume of respiration do total volume of air in or out in 1 minute MRV=TV(total volume)x bpm(breaths per minute)
what is alveolar ventilation rate (ARV) measures flow of fresh gas into and out of alveoli during particular time
what is the ARV alveolar ventilation rate formula ARV = frequency x TV - dead space (ml) (bpm) (tidal vol)
slow deep breathing does what to ARV (alveolar ventilation rate) increase cause more time for gas exchanges
shallow breathing does what to ARV (alveolar ventilation rate) decrease cause less time for gas exchange
nonrespiratory air movements result from what reflex action like coughing, sneezing, crying, laughing, hiccuping, yawning
what are the smallest passageways bronchioles
what separates the oral and nasal cavities palate
what closes of larynx during swallowing epiglottis
the change in lung volume with a given change in transpulmonary pressure lung compliance
gas flow changes inversely w/this factor respiratory passageway resisatance
essental for normal expiration lung elasticity
as t decreases air flows into passageways of the lungs intrapulmonary pressure
as it increases over atmospheric pressure the lungs collapse intrapulmonary pressure
rises well over atmospheric pressure during forceful cough intrapulmonary pressure
also known as intra-alveolar pressure intrapulmonary pressure
if this pressure becomes = to atmospheric pressure lung collapse intrapleural pressure
this pressure is always lower than atmospheric pressure intrapleural pressure
what are the structures of speech glottis, pharynx, arytenoid cartilage
what is the function of alveolar type I cells allow rapid diffusion of respiratory gases
what is the respiratory membrane (air-blood barrier) alveolar type I cell, basal laminae, endothelial cell
what 3 cells are responsible for removing foreign particles from inspired air goblet cells, dust cells, ciliated cells
what prevents lung collapse high surface tension of pleural cavities
adjustment to high altitude involes increase in minute respiratory volume, hypersecreation of erythroprotein
Created by: mbruckman03



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