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ECM lecture week 1

QuestionAnswer
What are the components of the ECM Proteins, glycoproteins, proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans and inorganic salts
Proteins of ECM elastin
Glycoproteins More proetin than CHO = Collagen
Proteoglycans More CHO than proteins = perelcan
Glycosaminoglycans Heparin Sulphate
Inorganic Salts Calcium phosphate
Where would you find type 1 collagen? dermis, tendons, ligaments and bones
Where would you find type 2 collagen? hyaline cartilage
Where would you find type 3 collagen? liver, bone marrow, lymphoid organs; also in granulation tissue; aka reticulin
Where would you find type 4 collagen? basement membranes
Where would you find type 7 collagen? linker to basement membrane
which type of glycoproteins form fibres? collagen, fibrillin, fibronectin
Which types of glycoproteins form a link between ECM and cells? laminin, entactin, tenascin
Ground Substance • amorphous • gel-like • matrix for diffusion of metabolites • contains glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) – polysaccharide polymers
glycosaminoglycans also called mucopolysaccharides. Chains of repeating dissacharide.
why are glycosaminoglycans acidix due to charged polar side groups that repel each other
Inglycosaminoglycans what would be the CHO component in NON SULPHATED GAGS? hyaluronic acid
Chondroitin sulphate and keratin sulphate are CHO components of proteoglycans found in? Cartilage
where would you find heparin sulphate? Basement membrane?
How is elastin synthesized to form ecm? • dominant ECM protein in arteries; 50% dry wt. aorta • soluble precursor – tropoelastin -secreted from cell • interacts with fibrillin, which acts as a scaffold • tropoelastin molecules become cross-linked
How are proteoglycans synthesized to form ECM? • core protein made on RER and translocated into lumen • vesicles carry it to Golgi • linkage tetrasaccharide added to serine residue of protein • polysaccharide chain is formed by addition of sugar units, 1 at a time by glycotranferase.
How are prostaglycans delivered to extracellular domain? By exocytosis
What are examples of enzymes that breakdown ECM proteins Elastase, Serine Proteases, matrix metalloproteinases
Osteoid unmineralised, organic portion of bone matrix
What family of enzymes breaks down Osteoid? Papain family of cysteine proteinases e.g cathepsin K
What are examples of enzymes that breakdown ECM proteins Elastase, Serine Proteases, matrix metalloproteinases
What is used to stain the basement membrane? Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) that binds to carbohydrate OR by using anti-bodies that specifically bind to a component of the BM (e.g laminin, type IV collagen)
Osteoid unmineralised, organic portion of bone matrix
What family of enzymes breaks down Osteoid? Papain family of cysteine proteinases e.g cathepsin K
The basement membrane of epithelial tissues is called? The basement membrane
What is used to stain the basement membrane? Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) that binds to carbohydrate OR by using anti-bodies that specifically bind to a component of the BM (e.g laminin, type IV collagen)
What is used to stain the basement membrane? Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) that binds to carbohydrate OR by using anti-bodies that specifically bind to a component of the BM (e.g laminin, type IV collagen)
The BM in cancer Barrier to malignancy
Epithelial tumours are only regarded as malignant when? The have breached the basement membrane
Until such times when a tumour hasnt breached the membrane the cell may be? Cytologically malignant, but the tumour is physically contained within the BM. At this stage it is called a carcinoma-in-situ
How is osteoid: ECM in bone synthesized? By osteoblasts
How is osteoid: ECM in bone synthesized? By osteoblasts
What is the portion of Inorganic salts to organic matrix in mature bone? 70% inorganic salts, 30% organic matrix
What is the portion of Inorganic salts to organic matrix in mature bone? 70% inorganic salts, 30% organic matrix
More than 90% of the organic component is? Type I collagen
More than 90% of the organic component is? Type I collagen
Osteocalcin Calcium building protein
Hydroxypaptite Crystals of calcium phosphate
Osteoclasts Breakdown osteoid
osteocytes allow communication
Cartilage ECM Synthesized by chondrocytes. Consists of: Type II collagen, chondroitin sulphate, keratan sulphate and hyaluronic acid.
How do ECM molecules influence cell behaviour? Interact with integrins in cell membranes to influence cell behaviour.
Created by: Taryn Miller