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Unit 3 APHG

Political Geography

Political Geography a branch of geography that deals with human governments, the boundaries and subdivisions of political units (as nations or states), and the situations of cities
State A country. Has a defined territory, a permanent population, a government, and is recognized by other states. (a country)
Territoriality a country's more local community's sense of property and attachment toward its territory, as expressed by its determination to keep it inviolable and strongly defended. (personal Space)
Sovereignty a principle of international relations that holds that final authority over social, economic, and political matters, should rest with the legitimate rulers of independent states. (legally having the last say over a territory)
Territorial Integrity the right of a state to defend sovereign territory against incursion from other states. ( the status, dominion, power, or authority of a sovereign; royalty)
Peace of Westphalia peace negotiated in 1648 to end the Thirty Years' War, Europe's most destructive internal struggle over religion. The treaties included contained new language recognizing statehood and nationhood, clearly defined borders, and guarantees of security.
Mercantilism economic doctrine that government control of foreign trade is of paramount importance for ensuring the military security of the country. (It demands a positive balance of trade economic policy of the commercial age preceding Industrial Revolution.)
Nation A tightly knit group of people possessing bonds of language, ethnicity, religion, and other cultural attributes. (EGHS)
Nation-State A state made up of a nation (Japan)
Democracy Government based on the principle that the people are the ultimate sovereign and have the final say over what happens within the state. (US Government)
Multination-State state with more than one nation within its borders (USA)
Multistate-Nation Nation that stretches across borders and across states (Christians)
Stateless-Nation Nation that has no state (Kurds)
Colonialism Colonialism is the establishment, exploitation, maintenance, acquisition and expansion of colonies in one territory by people from another territory (British colonies)
Scale Representation of a real world phenomenon at a certain level of reduction of generalization (Global or world)
Capitolism Economic model wherein people, corporations, and states produce goods and exchange them on the world market, with the goal of achieving profit. (prices and wages are determined by the forces of supply and demand)
Commodification the process through which something in given monetary value (pertaining to corn, soybeans, cotton, or other raw materials (i.e., the idea that "it's all the same."), but financial instruments can be commoditized, too)
Core Processes that incorporate higher levels od education, higher salaries, and more technology; generate more wealth than periphery processes in the world economy (USA)
Periphery Same as core; less wealth (African countries)
Semi-Periphery Places that both core and periphery processed are occurring; places that are exploited by the core but in turn exploit the periphery (China)
Ability In the context of political power, the capacity of a state to influence other states or achieve its goals through diplomatic, economic, or militaristic means.
Centripetal Forces that tend to unify a courtry
Centrifugal Forces that tend to divide a country
Unitary a nation-state that has a centralized government and administration that exercises power equality over all parts of the state
Federal Having or relating to a system of government in which several states form a unity but remain independent in internal affairs.
Devolution The process whereby religions within a state demand and gain a political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government.
Territorial Representation system wherein each representative is elected from a territoriality defined district
Reapportionment process by which representative districts are switched according to population shifts, so that each district encompasses approximately the same amount of people
Splitting the process by which the majority and minority pops. are spread evenly across each of the districts to be created therein ensuring control by the majority of each of the districts; as opposed to the results of majority-majority districts
Majority-Minority Districts the process by which a majority of the population is from the minority
Gerrymandering redistricting for advantage
Boundary Vertical plane between states that cuts through the rocks below, and the airspace above the surface.
Geometric Boundary Political boundary defined and delimited as a straight line or arch (US and Canada)
Critical Geopolitics Process by which geopoliticians deconstruct and focus on explaining the underlying spacial assumptions ans territorial perspectives of politicians
Physical-Political Boundary Political boundary defined and delimited by a prominent physical feature in the natural landscape
Heartland Theory Hypothesis proposed by Halford Mackinder that held that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain enough strength to eventually dominate the world.
Unilateralism world order in which one state is in a position of dominance with allies following rather than joining the political decision making process
Supranational Organization A venture involving 3 or more nation-states involving formal political, economic, and/or cultural cooperation to promote shared objectives
Antecedent Boundaries a boundary line established before an area is populated
Balkanization The contentious political process by which a state may break up into smaller countries
Buffer State a relatively small country sandwiched between two larger powers
Colonialism the expansion and perpetuation of an empire
Compact state a state that possesses a roughly circular, oval, or rectangular territory in which the distance from the geometric center in relatively equal in all dirrections
Confederation a form of an international organization that brings several autonomous states together for a common purpose
Democratization The process of establishing representative and accountable forms of government led by popularly elected officials
Domino Theory the idea that political destabilization in one country can lead to collapse of political organization, such as state or country
Electoral College a certain number of electors from each state proportional to and seemingly representative of that's state population. Each elector chooses a candidate believing they are representing their constituency's choice.
Electoral Vote The decision of a particular state elector that represents the dominant views of that elector's state
Elongated State a state whose territory is long and narrow in shape
Enclaves any small and relatively homogeneous group or religion surrounded by another larger and different group or region
European Union International organization comprised of Western European countries to promote free trade among members
Fragmented states states that aren't contiguous whole but rather separated parts
Frontier An area where borders are shifting and weak and where peoples of different cultures or nationalities meet and lay land to claim
Geopolitics the study of the interplay between political relations and the territorial context in which they occur
Imperialism the perception of a colonial empire even after it is no longer politically sovereign
International Organization an alliance of two or more countries seeking cooperation with each other without giving up either's autonomy or self-determination
Landlocked State a state that is completely surrounded by the land of other states, which gives it a disadvantage in terms of accessibility to and from international trade routes
Law of the Sea law establishing states' rights and responsibilities concerning the ownership and use of the earth's seas and oceans and their resources
Lebensraum Hitler's expansionist theory based on a drive to acquire "living space" for the German people
Microstate a state or territory that is small in both population and area
Nationalism A sense of national pride to such an extent of exalting one nation above all others
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Agreement signed on January 1st, 1994, that allows the opening of borders between US, Canada, and Mexico
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) An international organization that has joined together for military purposes
Organic Theory The view that states resemble biological organisms with life cycles that include stages of youth, maturity, and old age.
Perforated State a state whose territory completely surrounds that of another
Popular Vote the tally of each individual's vote within a given geographic area
Prorupted state a state that exhibits a narrow, elongated land extension leading away from the main territory
Rectangular State a state who's territory is rectangular shaped
Redistricting the drawing of new electoral district boundary lines in response to population changes
Relic Boundaries old political boundaries that no longer exist as international boundaries, but have left a mark
Rimland Theory Nicholas Spykman's theory that the domination of the coastal fringes of Eurasia would provide the base for world conquest
Self-determination the right of a nation to govern itself autonomously
States' Rights rights and powers believed to be in the authority of the state rather than the federal government
Subsequent Boundaries boundary line established after an area has been settled that considers the social and cultural characteristics of an area
Superimposed Boundaries boundary line drawn in an area ignoring the existing cultural pattern
Territorial Dispute any dispute over land ownership
Territorial Organization political organization that distributes political power in more easily governed units of land
Theocracy a state whose government is either believed to be divinely guided or a state under the control of a group of religious leaders
United Nations (UN) a global supranational organization established at the end of WW2 to foster international security and cooperation
Created by: wrosenquist6359
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