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Lecture 13

Normal Histology & Common Pathologic Conditions of the CNS

What structure is identified with the luxol fast blue? Histochemical stain for myelin
What structures are identified with the bielschowsky silver stain? Histochemical stain for axons and neurites
What is nissel substance? Prominent rough endoplasmic reticulum of a neuron
What areas of the brain contain neurons espeically vulnerable to hypoxic injury? (1) CA1 area (Sommer's sector) of hippocampus (2) Pyramidal neurons in layers 3 and 5 of the neocortex (3) Purkinje cells in the cerebellum
Microscopic changes seen in 1 hour after hypoxic-ischemic injury (1) Microvacuolation of cytoplasm (Mitochondrial swelling) (2) Perineuronal vacuolation (astrocytic processes swelling)
Microscopic changes seen in 4-12 hours after hypoxic-ischemic injury Appearance of red neuron: (1) Neuronal cytoplasm eosinophilia (Nissel bodies disappear) (2) nucleus piknosis (3) disappearance of nucleoli
Microscopic changes seen in 15-24 hours after hypoxic-ischemic injury Neurtophil leukocytes infiltration begins
Microscopic changes seen in 2 days after hypoxic-ischemic injury Macrophage infiltration
Microscopic changes seen in 5 days after hypoxic-ischemic injury Neutrophil infiltration ceases
Microscopic changes seen in 1 week after hypoxic-ischemic injury Proliferation of astrocytes
What diseases is characterized by Cowdry A type intranuclear inclusion? (1) CMV (2) Herpes simplex virus
Intracytoplasmic inclusion of neurons in Alzheimer's disease Neurofibrillary tangles
Intracytoplasmic inclusion of neurons in Parkinson's disease Lewy bodies
Intracytoplasmic inclusion of neurons in ALS Bunina bodies
Intracytoplasmic inclusion of neurons in Rabies Negri bodies
Proliferation of astrocytes in ares of CNS damage Gliosis or Astrocytosis
An acute response of astrocytes to injury Gemistocytic astrocytosis
An chronic response of astrocytes to injury Fibrillary astrocytosis
A major intermediate filament present in the cytoskeleton of astrocytes, ependymal cells, and oligodendrocytes Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)
Cells that produce myelin in the CNS Oligodendrocyte
What type of cells provide lining of the ventricles? Epndymal cells provide lining of the ventricles and play a major role in maintenance of the CSF-brain barrier.
What is the function of choroid plexus epithelium? Choroid plexus epithelium produce cerebrospinal fluid.
What is the normal level of white blood cells in CSF? <5 cells/mm3
What is the normal range of glucose in CSF? 40-70 mg/dL
What is the normal amount of protein in CSF? 15-25 mg/dL
What are the major sites of CSF blockage? (1) Foramen of Monro (2) 3rd ventricle (3) Aqueduct of Sylvius (4) Foramina of Luschka and Magendie (5) Basal cisterns/subarachnoid spaces
What is the function of activated microglia? (1) Brain damage repair (2) recruitment of hematogenous monocytes (3) antigen-presenting cells
A condition of excessive CSF within the ventricular system due to alteration of production, flow, or absorption of CSF. Hydrocephalus
Excessive CSF within the ventricular system due to alteration of production or absorption of CSF in the absence of CSF-flow obstruction. Communicating hydrocephalus
A condition characterized by dilation of hte ventricular system with a compensatory increase in CSF volume secondary to brain parenchyma loss (atrophy) Hydrocephalus ex vacuo
Consequences of increased intracranial pressure (1) compression of normal structure of the nervous tissue (2) ischemia and infarction (3) cranial nerve palsies (4) herniation
Herniation of cingulate gyrus under the falx cerebri Subfalcine herniation
Hernication of the uncus and mesial temporal horn under the tentorium cerebelli Transtentorial or uncal herniation
Herniation ofhte cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum Tonsillar herniation
What is the sequelae of subfalcine herniation? Compression of branches of the anterior cerebral artery resulting in infarcts.
What type of herniation would result in ipsilateral papillary dilation and impairment of ocular movements? Transtentorial or uncal herniation
Brainstem hemorrhage secondary to brainstem compression from cerebral herniation. Duret hemorrhage
What is a seriousl consequence of tonsillar herniation? Tonsillar herniation is life-threatening because of compression of vital respiratory and cardiac centers in the medulla oblongata.
A notch in the cerebral peduncle due to displacement of the brainstem against the incisura of the tentorium by a transtentorial herniation resulting in hemiparesis ipsilateral to the herniation side. Kernohan's notch
Created by: UVAPATH2