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Causes of War and Pe

o Number of seats directly proportional to number of votes o Diverse opinions but coalition government o Incentive for extreme parties and/votes based on ethnicity • Proportional Representation (PR)
o One person in district, most votes = win o Creates two extreme parties o Inadvertently locks out minority votes • Single-Member District Plurality (SMDP)
o Concept about SMDP  States that it leads to a radical two-party system • Duverger’s Law
o Protects minority groups with rights o Group representation • Consociationalism
o National government is dominant (centralized power) o Example is the UK • Unitary System
o Power is shared among central power and political subunits such as regional states • Federal
o Regional government more powerful than national government • Confederal
o President oversees the legislature o More prone to dictatorship • Presidential System
o Intertwined legislative and executive branch o Things get done faster, quicker decisions o Prime Ministers are heads of Parliament o Higher levels of voter turnout • Parliamentary System
o Fusion of Parliament and Presidential o President and Prime Minister both under day-to-day aministration o Example is France and Russia • Semi-Presidential System (Mixed Republic)
o Generally a military government running the system o Small group of decision makers o Highly centralized o Example is Chile • Authoritarianism
o Conflict that was never really resolved with low levels of violence o Primarily found in post-Soviet states • Frozen Conflict
o Help create protection screws and roaming banditry o Produce the danger and the protection simultaneously o Make war profitable • Ethnic Entrepreneurs
o Concept of kinship o Members share language, blood, thought, etc o Seen in Rwanda genocide causing cultural gap o Leads to violence due to rivalries among ethnic groups • Ancient Hatreds (aka Primordialism)
o Separation of ethinicities living in different areas o More dangerous when intermixed • Dual Societies
o Protection service to be stationary o As cost of robberies go up, cost for protection increases o Mercenaries and private security firms o Violent Entrepreneaurs o Leads to plundering within state, especially Africa • Protection Screw
o Form where newly elected leaders give jobs to people who helped them get into office o Leads to corruption • Spoils Politics
o Theory where countries with more abundant natural resources, especially fuels have a less economic growth and worse outcomes than countries with less abundance o Hurts development due to exploitation issues and increased dependency o Water, crops, oil • Resource Curse
o Maintaining the peace • Peacekeeping
o Resolving conflict through the use of violence o NATO • Peacemaking
o Scenario where win is automatic loss/expense for another party or all parties • Zero-sum Game
o Scenario where everyone wins o Nobody wins at someone else’s expense • Positive-sum Game
o What in God’s good name is the significance of a national security doctrine for this class? o Probably something to do with Latin American countries • National Security Doctrine (NSD)
Created by: 1842386065