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lymphatic system1

what makes up lymph in lymphatic vessels similar composition to interstitial fluid
what is the function of the lymphatic system drains excess interstitial fluid, transport dietary lipids and vitamins, immune responses
what is the pathway of lymph blood capillaries(plasma)->interstitial spaces->lymphatic vessels and nodes->lymphatic ducts->jugular and subclavian veins(plasma)-> into circulatory system
stem cells divide and develop into mature B and T cells red bone marrow(long bones) and thymus(primary lymphatic organs)
what are the primary lymphatic organs red bone marrow(long bones) and thymus
immune responses occur from where lymph nodes, spleen, lymphatic nodules (secondary lymphatic organs)
what are the secondary lymphatic organs lymph nodes, spleen, lymphatic nodules
what are the features of the thymus 2 lobed organ, located above the heart, immature T-cells migrate from bone marrow to
what happens in the thymus T-cells divide and mature, self reactive cells are removed
what are self reactive cells in the thymus T-cells that will attack own bodys cells
how are self reactive cells destroyed apoptosis in thymus before they reach maturity
what are the features of a lymph node bean shaped, concentrated near mammary glands, groin, axilla, contain B-cells, T-cells, dendritic cells, plasma cells, macrophages
what part of the lymphatic system contain B-cells, T-cells, dendritic cells, macrophages lymph nodes
what kind of cells are in the thymus T-cells
what do lymph nodes do filter lymph,trap foreign substances with macrophages and lymphocytes
what are the features of the spleen located between stomach and diaphragm, 1/2 white pulp-lymphocytes and macrophages, T and B lympocytes (WBC)& 1/2 red pulp-RBC, macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells, granular leukocytes
what are the functions of the spleen destroys old and defective blood cells and platelets by macrophages, stores platelets, attacks foreign substances in blood
where are the lymphatic nodules peyer's patches (ileum), tonsils, appendix
what are the 2 classes of immunity innate(from birth)fast, same for everyone adaptive(slower) from contact, memory, different for everyone
what are the features of the innate immunity from birth, fast non-specific, no memory, barriers(skin), pH extremes (stomach), phagocytes, NK cells, fever, inflammation, complement, interferons
what are the features of the adaptive immunity slower, specific, has memory, T-cells, B-cells, different for everyone after one encounters something
what is the bodies first line of defense in innate immunity skin and mucous membranes of respiratory, digestive, urinary, reproductive, optic systems
how does the skin work as part of the first line of defense in innate immunity 1-perspiration-salt inhibits pathogen growth, proteins (antimicrobial pep-tides), lysozyme that kills cell walls of bacteria. 2- oil keeps ph lower, keeps skin pliable 3-has normal microbiota
how do the normal microbiota in skin help with the first line of defense on skin in innate immunity compete with pathogens by consuming nutrients, make ph levels unfavorable, provide vitamins for host
how does the mucous membranes work as part of the first line of defense in innate immunity their thick and are viscus, epithelium have thin tightly packed outer covering that prevent entry and that shed often to carry away microbs
how does the lacrimal apparatus work as part of the first line of defense in innate immunity drains tears to wash surface of eyes, contain lysozyme that destroys bacteria
how does the digestive system work as part of the first line of defense in innate immunity gastric juices are acidic
how does the saliva and urine work as part of the first line of defense in innate immunity dilution and antibacterial action
what is in the second line of defense in innate immunity componets of blood-WBC, phagocytes(neutrophils, monocytes, macrophage), NK, interferons, fever, inflammation
how does leukocytes (WBC) work as part of the second line of defense in innate immunity divided into 3 granulocytes( ) and 2 agranulocytes ( )
how does phagocytes (1-neutrophils, 2-monocytes->macrophages) work as part of the second line of defense in innate immunity specialized to ingest microbes and cellular debris using lysosome
how does NK cells work as part of the second line of defense in innate immunity destroy microbes and tumor cells by causing inflammation, break cell membranes, attract phagocytes, tag cells for destruction. present in lymph nodes and red bone marrow
how does interferons work as part of the second line of defense in innate immunity they are cytokinds(message cells), nonspecifically inhibit spread of viral infections and cause symptoms of viral infections
how does inflammation work as part of the second line of defense in innate immunity nonspecific response to tissue damage by redness (rubor), heat (calor), swelling (tumor), pain (dolor)
what are the characteristics of inflammation in innate immunity redness (rubor), heat (calor), swelling (tumor), pain (dolor)
how does inflammation work in tissue damage in innate immunity tissue damage of cells-> causes release of histamine->to increase vasodilation in blood vessels to allow cells out of blood->leakage of clotting proteins to isolat bacteria to limit damage->Phagocytes(neuto and macro) eat and dead->dead cell contains pus
what is an abscess puss that has collected and not cleared out by way of skin or body cavity
how does a fever work as part of the second line of defense in innate immunity metabolic rate increases, temp above 98.6, pathogens cant live in temps
what triggers a fever in innate immunity pyrogens (bacterial toxins, cytoplasmic contents, antibody-antigen complexes) trigger hypothalamus to increase core temp
what are the 5 attributes of the adaptive immunity specificity (for pathogens), inducibility (activate other cells), clonality, unresponsiveness to self, memory
what are the properties of antigens molecules that recognizes as foreign, include bacterial, proteins of viruses, protozoa
what does an antigen trigger to produce antibodies plasma cells
what are the features of an antibody y shaped with variable antigen binding site on arms
what are the features of B Lymphocytes (B-cells) and antigens arise and mature in red bone marrow, located in spleen, lymph nodes, small amount in blood stream, has B cell recptor on surface
where are B-cells made and stored arise and mature in red bone marrow, located in spleen, lymph nodes
what are activated B-cells called plasma cells
what do plasma cells (activated B-cells) secrete antibodies called immunoglobulins
what are the 5 classes of antibodies made by B lymphocytes (plasma cells) IgM-first produced immunoglobulin, IgG-most common and longest-lasting 2nd made, IgA-body secreations (tears, mucous, sweat), IgE- parasitic infections and allergies, IgD-cell activation
plasma cell(activated B-cell) antibody IgM is what first produced immunoglobulin looks like pentagon with double stems and arms
plasma cell (activated B-cell) antibody IgG is what most common and longest-lasting 2nd made looks like y with double steams with 2 arms on each side
plasma cell (activated B-cell) antibody IgA is what body secretions (tears, mucous, sweat) looks like 11(eleven) with 2 arms on each end (total of 8 arms)
plasma cell (activated B-cell) antibody IgE is what parasitic infections and allergies looks like y with 2 steams with 1 dot on each side and 2 arms on each side
plasma cell (activated B-cell) antibody IgD is what cell activation looks like looks like y with 2 steams with 2 dots on each side and 2 arms on each side
What is BCR B cell receptor
what is TCR T cell receptor
what are the features of T (lymphocytes) cells produced in red bone marrow and mature in thymus, move in lymph and blood to get to lymph nodes, spleen, peyer's patches(ilium), lack y look steam is cut off, the TCR is on cytoplasmic membrane
what are the 2 types of T (lymphocytes) cells Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte-directly kills other cells, has CD8 protein on surface Helper T lymphocytes-helps regulate the activites of B and cytotoxic T cells, has CD4 proteins on surface
what is on the surface of a cytotoxic T-cell CD8 protein
what is on the surface of a helper T-cell CD4 protein
on the surface of a helper T-cell CD4 protein recognizes what kind of cells MHC II
on the surface of a cytotoxic CD8 protein reconizs what kind of cells MCH I
What is the difference of MHC I and MHC II MCH I-all cells with nucleus MCH II- APC's(antigent presenting Cells) have with and without nucleus
B-cells (plasma, IgM, IgG, IgA, IgE, Ige, IgD) recognize and bind to antigens in big cells in lymph, plasma, interstitial fluid
T-cells (cytotoxic, helper T) recognize and bind to antigens in fragments that are processed and presented in a certain why
What is APC Antigen presenting cell
what are APC's (Antigen presenting cell) marcophages, dendritic, B-cells
where are APC's (Antigen presenting cell) found respiratory, GI, urinary tracts, all lymph nodes
What does MHC stand for major histocompatibility complex
cell mediated immunity needs 2 signals what are they 1st-antigen recognition by APC's 2nd-Interleukin released from (t-cells or b-cells)
in cell mediated immunity helper t-cells do what release IL-2 (interleukin) to attract phagocytes to stimulate macrophages and B-cells
in cell mediated immunity cytotoxic t-cells do what work against tumor, transplanted, infected cells to kill them
in cell mediated immunity memory helper t-cells and memory cytotoxic t-cells do what live for years and give rapid response
cell mediated immunity heper t-cells need 2 signals to get activated what are they APC and IL-2 (interleukin)
cell mediated immunity cytotoxic t-cells need 2 signals to get activated what are they helper T-cell and APC or infected body cell
where are the B-cells and antibody-mediated response located lymph nodes, slpeen
what happens after cells are activated rapidly divide and form clones of activated cells and memory cells
after activated B-cells change into plasma cells what happens plasma cells produce antibodies
b-cells produce how many antibodies in an hour 100 million
b-cells can activate themselves but are slower then when activated by t helper cells
why are antibodies made and what do they do neutralizing toxins, coat surface of bacteria to immobilize, bind pathogens together so they don't spread, enhance phagocytosis
in primary response in first encounter IgM is first how long before IgG starts working 1 week
in primary response in second encounter IgM is first how long before IgG starts working same time
immunological memory can be artificially acquired by vaccination from killed cells, isolated antigens, parts of viruses
of the 4 types of acquired immunity what is naturally acquired active do why body responds to exposure to pathogens and environmental antigens (person gets disease)
what are the 4 types of acquired immunity naturally acquired active, artificially acquired active, naturally acquired passive, artificially acquired passive
of the 4 types of acquired immunity what is naturally acquired passive do antibodies transferred from mother to baby (mother did all work baby did none)
of the 4 types of acquired immunity what is artificial acquired active do response to antigens introduced via a vaccine
of the 4 types of acquired immunity what is artificial acquired passive do receiving antibodies from another person (outside source)
what are the aging affects on immunity thymus atrophies (age 30), fewer t-cells, t helper cells, cytotoxic (cause of thymus getting smaller)causing poor B-cell response causing poorer response to new infection
defense against bacteria process (innate)marcophage activation->Antigen presentation--->activation of cytotoxic T-cell-> destruction of cell by lysis or--->activation of helper T-cells->activate B-cell->antibody production->destruction by lysis
where is the lg. collection of lymphoid tissue in body adult spleen
reticular epithelial cells in thymus secrete hormones that do stem cell divisions and T-cell differentation
NK cells sensitive to presence of abnormal cell membranes are primarily involved in immunological surveillance
the lymphatic organs are spleen, thymus, lymph nodes
primary function of lymphatic system is production, maintenance, distribution of lymphocytes
lymphocytes that assist in regulation and coordination of immune response are helper T and suppressor T cells
before an antigen can stimulate a lymphocyte it must be first processed by a macrophage
T-cells that limit immune system activation from single stimulation is suppressor T-cells
2 major ways that the body carries out immune response direct by T-cells and circulating antibodies
when antigen appears the immune response brgins with activated specific T-cell and B-cell
tonsils are more susceptible to infection cause lower number of cytotoxic T-cells
fetal antibody production is uncommon because the developing fetus has what natural passive immunity from mother
lymphocytes that attack foreign cells or body cells infected by viruses are called cytotoxic T-cells
plasma cells are responsible for the production and secretion of what antibodies
lymphatic system begins in tissues as lymph capillaries
process during macrophages move though endothelial cells of capillary walls is called diapedesis
small proteins released by activated lymphocytes and macrophages and tissue cells infected by viruses are interferons
antibodies that comprise 80% of all antibodies in body IgG
antibodies that naturaly occur in blood plasma that are used to blood type people are IgM
HIV virus attacks what cells in humans helper T
what are the 3 classes of lymphocytes in blood T and B and NK cells
in passive immunity what are injected into body antibodies
lymphatic white pulp in spleen is what initiation of immune response by B and T cells
antibodie produced and secreted by B lymphocytes are soluable protiens called immunoglobulins
cytotoxic T cells are responsible for what type of inmunity cell-mediated
small organic molecules that are not antigens by themselves are called haptens
only antibodies that cross the placenta from mothers blood stream is IgG
what is specific defense immune response
what is fever's patch lymph nodules in sm intestines
what are macrophages monocytes
what are microphages neutrophils and eosinphils
what are mast cells nonspecific immune response
what are interferons chemical messengers
what is antigen contact type II allergy
what type of cell lyse cells directly cytotoxic T cells
what is endocytosis antigen presentation
what are antibodies 2 parallel pairs of polypeptide chains
what is the coating of antibodies called opsonization
what antbodies accompany fetal-maternal Rh imcompatibility IgG
what do interleukins do enhances nonspecific defenses
what releases to resist viral infections interferons
what activates B-cells lymphokines
Created by: mbruckman03



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