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Anatom one


Tissue sheath that surrounds the each skeletal muscle epimysium
ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force contractility
capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus excitability
ability to be stretched extensibility
ability to recoil to their original resting length elasticity
connective tissue outside of the epimysium fascia
muscle is composed of numerous bundles called fasciculi
loose connective tissue that surrounds the fasciculi perimysium
connective tissue sheath that surrounds each muscle fiber endomysium
cytoplasm of each fiber is filled with myofibrils
two major kinds of protein fibers actin & myosin myofilaments
thin myofilaments actin
thick myofilaments myosin
actin and myson myofilaments form highly ordered units called sarcomeres
nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers motor neurons
each branch that connects to the muscle forms a neuromuscular (synapse)
a single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates are called a motor unit
the enlarged nerve terminal is the presynapsis terminal
each sarcomere extends from __ line to another __ line Z
The arrangement of ___ and ___ give a banded appearance. actin, myosin
on each side of the Z line is a light area called an __ band that consists of actin. I
The __ band extends the length of the myosin and is the darker central region in each sarcomere. A
In the center of each sarcomere is another light area called the __ zone consisting of only myosin H
myosin myofilaments are anchored in the center of the sarcomere at a dark staining band called the __ line M
resting membrane potential the charge difference across the membrane.
action potential the brief reversal back of the charge
motor neurons nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers
while axons enter the muscles and branch, each branch that connects to the muscle forms a _____, or ____ near the center of the cell neuromuscular junction, synapse.
motor unit a single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates
presynaptic terminal the englarged nerve terminal
synaptic cleft the space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell
postsynaptic terminal muscle fiber
each presynaptic terminal contains synaptic vesicles
synaptic vesicles secrete a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine
the acetylcholine released into the synaptic cleft between the neuron and muscle cell is rapidly broken down by an enzyme... acetylcholinesterase
muscle contraction occurs... when actin and myosin myofilaments slide past one another causing the sarcomeres to shorten, causing the muscle to shorten.
sliding filament mechanism sliding of actin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments during contraction. H and I bands shorten, A do not.
muscle twitch contraction of an entire muscle in response to stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fibers.
a muscle fiber will not respond to stimulus until that stimulus reaches a level called threshold
all-or-none response the point when the muscle fiber will contract maximally
lag phase the time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction
contraction phase time of contraction
relaxation phase time during which the muscle relaxes
tetany where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing
recruitment increase in number of motor units being activated
ATP (adenosine triphosphate) needed for energy for muscle contraction, produced in the mitochondria, short lived and unstable.
creatine phosphate high-energy molecule ATP can store
anaerobic respiration without oxygen
aerobic respiration with oxygen, more efficient
oxygen debt amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose and to replenish the depleted stores of creatine phosphate stores in muscle cells.
muscle fatigue resluts when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than what it can be produced in the muscle cells
2 types of muscle contractions isometric, isotonic
isometric (equal distance) the length of the muscle does not change, but the amount of tension increases during the contraction process.
isotonic (equal tension) the amount of tension produced by the muscle is constant during contraction, but the length of the muscle changes.
muscle tone refers to constant tension produced by muscles of the body for long periods of time. keeps head up, back straight.
fast-twith fibers contract quickly and fatigue quickly. well adapted to perform anaerobic metabolism. (white meat of chicken breast)
slow-twitch fibers contract more slowly and are more resistant to fatigue. better suited for aerobic metabolism. (dark meat in chicken legs)
origin and insertion points of attachment of each muscle
origin (head) most stationary end of the muscle
insertion end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement
belly portion of the muscle between the origin and insertion
occipito frontalis raises eyebrows
orbicularis oculi closes eyelids
orbicularis puckers lip
buccinator flattens cheeks "trumpeters muscle"
zygomaticus smiling
levator labii superious sneering
depressor anguli oris frowning
masticate chewing, (temporalis, masseter)
tongue muscles extrinsic, intrinsic
extrinsic move tongue
intrinsic change shape
synergists muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements
antagonists muscles that work in opposition to one another.
among a group of synergists, if one muscle plays the major role in accomplishing the prime mover
Created by: lilbatbill9



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