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Anatomy Chapter 6--

QuestionAnswer
ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force contractility
capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus excitability
extensibility ability to be stretched
ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched elasticity
each skeletal muscle is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath which is called epimysium
connective tissue located outside the epimysium, it surrounds and seperates muscle fascia
muscle is composed of numerous visible bundles called and are surrounded by_______. fasciculi and perimysium
fasciculi are composed of single muscle cells called fibers
endomysium fiber is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath
cytoplasm of each fiber is filled myofibrils
myosin myofilaments thick myofilaments, they resemble bundles of minute golf clubs
joined end to end to form the myofbril sarcomere
charge difference across the membrane resting membrane potential
nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal mucsle fibers motor neurons
near the center of the cell synapse
single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates motor units
presynaptic terminal enlarged nerve terminal
the space between the preesynaptic terminal and the mucsle cell synaptic cleft
postsynaptic terminal muscle fiber
synaptic vesicles each terminal contains
acetylcholine secrete neurotransmitter
acetylcholinesterase muscle cell is rapidly broken down by an enzyme
combination of acetylcholine with its receptor causes an influx of sodium ions into the muscle fibers
sliding of actin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments during contraction is sliding filament mechanism
contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes the actin poetinail in one or more muscle muscle twitch
when stimulus that causes fiber to respond at level called threshold
phenomenon is called all or none response
time between applicaTION OF A STIMULUS TO A MOTOR NEURON AND THE BEGINNING OF A CONTRACTION IS THE LAG PHASE
time of contraction contraction phase
time when muscle relaxes relaxation phase
muscle stays contracted tetany
increase of motor units being activated recruitment
Atp adenosine triphosphate
needed for energy for muscle contraction atp
produced in mitochondria atp
short lived and unstable atp
Adp adenosine diphosphate
plus phosphate adp
atp cant stockpile but what can creatine phosphate
atp is used to synthesize creatine phosphate
without oxygen anaerobic respiration
with oxygen aerbic respiations
increased respiations provide the oxygen to pay back the oxygen debt
amount of oxygen needed in chemical reaction oxygen debt
muscle tired muscle fatigue
equal distance isometric
equal tension isotomic
legnth of muscle does not change isometric
amount of tension produced by muscle isotonic
refers to constant tension muscle tone
contract and faTIGUE QUICKLY FAST TWITH FIBERS
contract more slowly and resistant to fatigue slow twich fibers
most stationary end of musle origin
end of muscle insertion
between origin and insertion belly
origins head
muscle work together to accomplish certain movements synergist
muscles that work in oppostion to another antagonist
accomplished the desired movement prime mover
mucsles have names that are descriptive
some are named by location
somee are named by size
some are named by orientation of fibers
some are named by shape
some are named by origin
some are named by insertion
some are named by function
fascicles are arranged in concentric rings circular
converge toward a single insertion tendon convergent
length of the fascicles run parallel
short fascicles attatch obliquely to a central tendon pennate
modification of paralle arrangment fusiform
covers frontal bone frontalis
lip muscle orbicularis oris
muscle extends from corner of mouth zygamaticus
Created by: cmeade5