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Chapter 6

Anatomy

QuestionAnswer
The ability of a skeletal muscle to shorten with force. Contractility
Excitability The capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus.
extensibilty the ability to be stretched.
elasticity the ability to recoil to their original resting lenght after they have been stretched.
Each skeletal muscle is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath called what? epimysium
Another connective located outside the epimysium that surrounds the muscle. Fascia
A muscle is composed of numerous bundles called muscle fasciculi which are surrounded by loose connective tissue. perimysium
The fasciculi are composed of single muscle cells called what? fibers
Each _______ ________ is a single cylindrical cell containing several nuclei. muscle fiber
each fiber is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath called what? endomysium
the cytoplasm of each fiber is filled with myofibrils. true or false true
a threadlike structure that extends from one end of the fiber to the other. myofibrils.
Actin and myosin the to major protien fibers. (hint myofilaments)
Actin and Myosin myofilaments form highly ordered units called ___________. Sacromeres
the basic strutural and functional unity of the muscle. sacromere.
The outside of most cells is positivly charge compared to the inside of the cell membrame, whcih is negatively charged. the charge difference across the membrame is called __________. resting membrane potential.
When a muscle is stimualted the membrane charaterstics changen briefly. The reversal back of the charge is called _________ ___________. action potential.
Nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers. Motor Neurons
______ enter the msucles and branch. Axons
Each branch that connects to the muscle forms a neuromuscular junction or_________ near the center of the cell. synapse
A single motor nueron and all the skeletal msucle fibers it innervates are called _____________. motor unit
A neuromuscular junction is ormed by and enlarged nerve terminal resting in a indentation of the ______ _______. presynaptic terminal
the space between the presynaptic termanal and the muscle cell synaptic cleft
the muscle fiber for the synaptic cleft is postsynaptic terminal
Each presynaptic termianl contains __________. synaptic vesicles
frontalis moves the eyebrow
closes the eyelid(crows) orbicularis oculi
orbicularis oris pcukers lips
zygomaticus smiling
depressor anguli orbis frown
levator labii superious sneering
mastication chewing
muscle twitch is a contraction of an entire muscle in response stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fibers.
the muscle fibers will not respond to stimulus until that stimulus reaches a level called _________. threshold
the threshold phonomenon is called all-or-none response.
the time between application pf a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beggining of a contraction lag phase
the time of a contration is _______. contraction phase.
when the muscle remaings contracting without relaxing. tetany
the time period when the muscle relaxes relaxation phase
the increase in number of motor units being activated recuitment
ATP is needed for energy for muscle contraction.
ATP is produced in the mitochondria
ATP is short lived and instable
ADP plus phosphate
without oxygen anaerobic respiration
aerboic respiration with oxygen(more efficent)
oxygen debt the amout of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic to glucose and to replenish the depleted stores of creatine phosphate stores in muscle cells.
muscle fatigue when ATP is used during the muscle contraction faster than it can be produced.
what muscles are invovled during mastication. masseter and temporalis
fast twitch fatique fast
slow twitch more resistant to fatigue
isometric the length of the muscle doesnt change, but the amount of tension increases.
isotonic the amount of tension produced by the muscle is consistant
muscle tone keeps head up and back straight
origin the most stationary end of the muscle.
insertion is the end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement.
belly portion of the muscle between the origin.
synergists muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements.
anatagonists muscles that work in opposition to one another called __________.
a single cell containing nuclei muscle fiber
connective tissue outside the epimysium fasciculi
the sarcomere the basic structuraland functional inoty of the muscle.
fascia connective tissue located outside the epimysium.
T or F muscles help the produce heat essential for maintence of normal body tempurature. true
the enlarged nerve terminal presynaptic terminal
enlarged termonal formed by ______. enlarged nerve
many motor untis form a _________ muscle. single
two types of muscle contractions are _______ and _______. isometric isotonic
some muscles have multiple muscles or ______. head
during periods of activity, the energy stored in creotin phoshphate can be acsees quickly and produce ______. ATP
when the _______ shorten it causes the muscle to shorten. sacromere
the H and I bands shorten but then ____ stay the same. A
ATP is needed for _______ for muscle contraction. energy
HTP is _____ lived and unstable. short
it is necessary for muscle cells to costantly produce ______. ATP
Created by: KatieOxley3