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chapt 6 uhadiohg

QuestionAnswer
To shorten or develop tension. Contraction
Muscle cells. Muscle Fibers
Thin connective tissue surrounding each muscle cell. Endomysium
Connective tissues enveloping bundles of muscle fibers. Perimysium
A bundle of nerve or muscle fibers bound together by tissue. Fascicle
Plasma membrane. Sarcolema
The sheath of fibrous connective tissue surrounding a muscle. Epimysium
The smallest contractive unit of muscle. Sarcomere
One of the principle contractive proteins found in muscle. Myosin
A contractile protein of muscle. Actin
Speacialzed smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
A motor neuron and all the muscle cells it supplies. Motor Unit
Neuron process that carries impulses away from the nerve cell body. Axon
A chemical transmitter substance released by certain nerve endings. Acetylcholine
Muscles that are unable to contract even though it is still stimulated. Muscle Fatigue
The moveable attatchment of a muscle as opposed to its origin. Insertion
Muscles cooperating with another muscle or muscle group to produce a desired movement. Synergists
Muscles that act in opposition to an agonist or prime mover. Antagonist
Muscles acting to imobilize a joint or bone. Fixators
Muscle consisting of spindle fibers, unstripped muscle cells. Smooth Muscle
Specialized muscle of the heart. Cardiac Muscle
Muscles that are unable to contract even though it is still stimulated. Muscle Fatigue
Contraction in which muscles do not shorten. Isometric Contractions
Attatchment of a muscle that remains relatively fixed during muscular contraction. Origin
Myofilaments are successful in their sliding movements, the muscle shortens and movement occurs. Isotonic Contractions
The ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force. Contracility
The capacity of skeltal muscle to resopond to a stimulus. Excitabililty
Ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched. Elasticity
the ability to be stretched Extensibility
Another connective tissue located outside of the epimysium. Fascia
A threadlike structure that extends from one end of the fiber to another. Myofibrilis
The charge difference across the membrane Resting Membrane Potential
The brief reversal back of the charge Action Potential
Each branch that connects to the muscle forms synapse
Nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers Motor Neurons
The enlarged nerve terminal Presynaptic Terminal
The space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell synaptic cleft
the muscle fiber Postsynaptic Terminal
Each presynaptic Terminal contains Synaptic Vesicles
The sliding of actin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments slide past one another causing the sacromeres to shorten Sliding Filament Mechanism
A contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fibers muscle twitch
A muscle fiber will not respond to stimulus until that stimulus reaches a level called Threshold
The time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction Lag Phase
the time of the contraction is Contraction Phase
The time when the muscle relaxes Relaxation Phase
Where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing Tetany
the increase in number of motor units being activated Recruitment
needed for energy for muscle contraction ATP
a high energy molecule stocked by ATP Creatine Phosphate
without oxygen Anaerobic Respiration
with oxygen Aerobic Respiration
amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to gluclose Oxygen Debt
when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced in the muscle cells Muscle Fatigue
the length of the muscle does not change but the amount of tension increases during the contraction process isometric
the amount of tension produced by the muscle is constant during contraction, but the length of the muscle changes isotonic
constant tension produced by muscles of the body for long periods of time muscle tone
contract quickly and fatigue quickly fast-twitch fibers
contract more slowly and are more resistant to fatigue slow-twitch fibers
most stationary end of the muscle origin
end of the muscle undergoing the greatest moviement insertion
portion of the muscle between the origin and the insertion belly
muscles that work together synergists
muscles that work against eachother anatagonist
if one muscles plays a major role in accomplishing the desired movement prime mover
raises eyebrows occipitofrontals
closes eyelids orbicularis oculi
puckers lips orbicularis oris
flattens the cheeks buccinator
smiling zygomaticus
sneering levator labili superiors
frowning depressor anguli oris
chewing mastication
moves the tongue extrinsic
changes the shape of the tongue intrinsic
Created by: alirenea19