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Anatomy 3rd&4th

Chapter 6 Muscular System

Contractility the ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force.
Excitability the capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus.
Extensibility the ability to be stretched.
Elasticity ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched.
Epimysium surrounds skeletal muscle by a connective tissue sheath.
Fascia connective tissue located outside the epimysium.
Perimysium loose connective tissue.
Fibers single muscle cells.
Endomysium surrounds each fiber by connective tissue sheath.
Myofibrils threadlike structure that extends from one end of the fiber to the other.
Actin Myofilaments thin myofilaments.
Myosin Myofilaments thick myofilaments.
Sarcomeres highly ordered units.
Resting Membrane Potential charge difference across the membrane.
Action Potential brief reversal act of the charge.
Motor Neurons nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers.
Neuromuscular Junction synapse near the center of the cell.
Motor Unit a single motor unit neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates.
Presynaptic Terminal enlarged nerve terminal.
Synaptic Cleft the space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell.
Postsynaptic Terminal muscle fiber.
Synaptic Vesicles secrete acetylcholine.
Acetylcholine neurotransmitter.
Acetylcholinesterase ensures that one action potential in the neuron.
Sliding Filament Mechanism sliding of actin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments during contraction.
Muscle Twitch a contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fibers.
Threshold muscle fiber will contract maximally.
All-or-none Response when muscle fiber will not respond to stimulus until stimulus reaches threshold level.
Lag Phase time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction.
Contraction Phase time of contraction.
Relaxation Phase time during which the muscle relaxes.
Tetany where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing.
Recruitment the increase in number of motor units being activated.
Creatine Phosphate When at rest they can't stockpile ATP but they can store another high-energy molecule.
Anaerobic respiration without oxygen
Aerobic respiration with oxygen (more efficient)
Oxygen debt the amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose and to replenish the depleted stores of creatine phosphate stores in muscle cells.
Muscle fatigue results when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced in the muscle cells
Isometric (equal distance) the length of the muscles does not change, but the amount of tension increases during the contraction process
Isotonic (equal tensions) the amount of tension produced by the muscle is constant during contraction, but the length of muscle changes
Muscle tone the constant tension produced by muscles of the body for long periods of time.
fast-twitch fibers contract quickly and fatigue quickly
Slow-twitch fibers Contract more slowly and are more resistant to fatigue
Origin the most stationary end of the muscle
Insertion the end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement
belly portion of the muscle between the origin and the insertion
Synergists Muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements.
Antagonists Muscles that work in opposition to one another.
Muscles Help to produce heat essential for maintence of normal body temp.
Muscle Fasciculi (fascicle) a muscle that is composed of numerous visible bundles
Muscle fiber Each one is a single cyndrical cell containing several nuclei
Cytoplasm Each one has a fiber filled with myofibrils
The sacromere the basic structural and functional unity of the muscle
Each Sarcomere extends from one Z line (disc) to another Z line (Disc)
Each Z line An attachment site for actin
Arrangement of actin and myosin They give a banded appearance
A BAnd extends the length of the myosin
Membrane Potential outside outside of most cell membranes is positively charged compared to the inside of the cell membrane
Axons Axons enter the muscles and branches
Nerve supply Many motors form a single muscle
The acetycholine Diffuses across the synaptic cleft and blinds to the post synaptic terminal causing a change in the
Fasciculi A muscle composed of numerous visible bundles
What is the sliding mechanicism of muscle contraction? Sliding of actin myofilaments pass myosin myofilaments during contraction.
Muscle twitch A contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causs the action potential in one or more muscle fibers.
Tetany Where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing.
Isometric contraction length of the muscle that does not change, but the amount of tension increases during the contracaption process.
Isotonic Contraction The amount of tension produced by the muscle is constant during contraction but the length of the muscle changes.
What are extrinsic tongue muscles? Muscles that change the shape of your tongue.
What are intrinsic tongue muscles? Muscles that Move your tongue.
Frontalis Covers the frontal line.
Orbicularis Oculi opens and closes the eyes.
Orbicularis Oris forms the tissue of the lips.
Buccinator Circular muscles of the lips.
Zygomaticus Extends from the corner of the mouth to the cheek bone.
Created by: svsenior2013



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