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Ch. 6 Notes

QuestionAnswer
contractility ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force.
excitability the capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulate
extensibility ability to be stretched
elasticity ability to recoil to their original resting length after being stretched
epimysium connective tisssue sheath surrounding each skeletal muscle
fascia another connective tissue located outside the epimysium, surrounding and separating muscles.
perimysium loose connective tissue surrounded fasciculi
muscle fasciculi composed of single muscle cells called fibers
each muscle fiber is a single cylindrical cell containing several.. nuceli
endomysium connective tissue sheath surrounding each fiber
the cytoplasm of each fiber is filled with.. myofibrils
myofibrils a thread like structure that extends from one end of the fiber to another
myofibrils consist of 2 major kinds of protein fibers actin myofilaments, myosin myofilaments
actin myofilaments thin myfilaments that resemble 2 minute strands of pearls twisted together.
myosin myofilaments thick myfilaments that resemble bundles of minute gold clubs
actin and myosin myofilaments from highly ordered units called sarcomeres
sarcomere myofibral
each sacromere extends from __ line to another __ line z
each z line is an attachment site for.. actin
the arrangements of __ and __ give a band appearance. actin, myosin
on each side of the z line is a light area called an __ band that consists of actin. I
The __ band entends the length of the myosin and is the darker central region is each sacromere A
light area called __ zone consisiting of only myosin H
center of the sacromere at a dark staining band called the __ line. M
resting membrane potential the charge difference across the membrane.
actin potential brief several back of the charge.
motor neurons nerve cells that carry action potential to skeletal muscle fibers.
while axons ener the juscles and branch, each branch that connects to the muscle forms a __, or __ near the center of the cell. neuromuscular junction, synapse
motor unit single motor nuerons and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates.
presynaptic terminal the enlarged serve terminal, muscle fiber
synaptic cleft the space between the presynaptic terminal and muscle cell
each presynaptic terminal contains... synaptic vesicles
synaptic vesicles secrete a neurotramitter called.. acetylcholine
the acetylcholine released into the synaptic cleft between the nueron and muscle cell is rapidly broken down by an enzymes called.. acetylcholinesterase
sliding of actin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments during contraction is called... sliding filament mechanism
muscle twitch a contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fibers.
muscle fiber will not respond to stimulus reaches a level called.. threshold
lag phase the time between application of a stimulus to a motor meuron and the beginning of a contraction
contraction phase time of contraction
relaxation phase time during which the muscle relaxes
tetany where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing
recruitment increase in number of motor units being activated
ATP needed for energy for muscle contraction
creatine phosphate another high energy molecule
anaerobic respiration without oxygen
aerobic respiration with oxygen
oxygen debt the amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose
muscle fatigue results when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced in the muscle cells
isometric the length of the muscle does not change, but the amount of tension increases during the contraction process
isometric the amount of tension produced by the muscle is constant during contraction, but length of muscle changes.
muscle tone muscle tone refers to constant tension produced by muscles of the body for long periods of time. keeps head and back straight
fast twitch fibers contract quickly and fatigue quickly. well adapted to perform anaerobic metabolism
slow twitch fibers contract more slowly and are more resistant to fatigue. better suited for aerobic metabolism
origin head, most stationary end of the muscle
insertion the end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement
belly portion of the muscle between the origin and insertion
synergists muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements
antagonists muscles that work in opposition to one another
prime mover if one muscle plays the major role in accomplishing the desired movement
occipitofrontalis raises eyebrows
orbicularis oculi close eyelids
orbicularis oris puckers lips
buccinator flattens the cheeks
zygomaticus smiling
levator labii superioris sneering
depressor anguli oris sneering
depressor anguli oris frowning
mastication chewing
extrinsic move the muscle
points of attachment to each muscle: origin and insertion
some muscles have... mutiple orgins and heads
atp is.. produced in mitochondria
atp is.. shot lived and unstable
axons enter the.. muscles and branch
mysoin myofilaments are anchored in the center of the sacromere at a dark staining band called the.. M line