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PNS dysfunction NPTE

PNS dysfunction - Scorebuilders NPTE

QuestionAnswer
Common mechanism of axillary nerve injury Fracture of neck of humerus or anterior dislocation of the shoulder
Common mechanism of musculocutaenous nerve injury Clavicular Fracture
Common mechanism of radial nerve injury fracture of humerus or compression of nerve in the radial tunnel
Common mechanism of median nerve injury Compression in the carpal tunnel or pronator teres entrapment
Common mechanism of ulnar nerve injury Compression in the cubital tunnel or entrapment in Guyon's canal
Common mechanism of femoral nerve injury THA, displace acetabular fracture, anterior dislocation of the femur, hysterectomy, appendectomy
Common mechanism of injury of sciatic nerve THA, Blunt force trauma to the buttocks, Accidental injection into the nerve
Common mechanism of injury of obturator nerve THA, Fixation of a femur fracture
Common mechanism of injury of peroneal (fibular) nerve Femur, tibia, or fibula fracture, positioning during surgical procedures
Common mechanism of injury of tibial nerve Tarsal Tunnel entrapment, or popliteal fossa compression
Common mechanism of injury of sural nerve fracture of the calcaneus or lateral malleous
Neurapraxia Mildest form of acute nerve injury. Nerve fibers not damaged. Sym:pain, min. muscle atrophy, numbness or greater loss of motor and sensory function, diminished proprioception. Rapid/complete recovery within 4-5 weeks. Most commonly from pressure injuri
Axonotmesis More severe grade of injury to peripheral nerve. Reversible injury to damaged fibers. Recovery is spontaneous and varies from spotty to no recovery; May require surgery.
Neurotmesis The most severe grade of peripheral nerve injury. Axon, myelin, conn. tissue are all damage or transected. Irreversible injury, no possibility of regeneration. Symp: Flaccid paralysis,wasting of muscles, Total loss of sensation to area supplied by nerve.
Neurotmesis recovery No spontaneous recovery; with surgical reattachment, potential regenerating axons may grow at one millimeter per day with proximal recovery first. Sensory recovery occurs sooner than motor fibers. ex:Complete transection of the nerve trunk
Common mechanisms of axonotmesis Traction, compression, and crush injuries are most common.
Describe Anterior Horn cell pathology characteristics and example Sensory component is intact Motor weakness and atrophy Fasciculations Dec. DTR's Ex: Amyotrophic lateral scleorosis and Poliomyelitis
Describe Muscular pathology characteristics and example Sensory component is intact Motor weakness Rarely fasciculations Normal or Dec. DTR's Ex: Muscular dystrophy
Describe symptoms of Neuromuscular junction pathology and example Sensory component intact Motor fatigue is greater than actual weakness Normal DTR's Ex: Myasthenia gravis
Describe symptoms of peripheral mononeuropathy pathology and example an isolated nerve lesion. Sensory loss along the nerve route Motor weakness and atrophy in a peripheral distribution; may have fasciculations Ex: Trauma or entrapment
Describe symptoms of peripheral polyneuropathy pathology and example Sensory impairments in a "stocking glove" distribution Motor weakness and atrophy Weaker distally than proximally May have fasciculations Dec. DTR's Ex: Diabetes
Symptoms of spinal roots and nerve pathology and example Sensory component will have corresponding dermatomal deficits. Motor weakness in an innervated pattern;May have fasciculations Dec. DTR's Ex: herniated disk
Upper motor neuron disease: reflexes Hyperactive
Lower motor neuron disease: reflexes diminished or absent
Upper motor neuron disease: atrophy Atrophy is mild from disuse
Lower motor neuron disease: atrophy muscular atrophy is present from poor innervation
Upper motor neuron disease: fasciculations fasiculations are absent
Lower motor neuron disease: fasciculations fasiculations are present
Upper motor neuron disease: Tone Hypertonicity
Lower motor neuron disease: Tone hypotonicity to flaccidity
Describe Upper motor neuron disease a lesion found in descending motor tracts within the cerebral motor cortex, internal capsule, brainstem or spinal cord. Damaged tracts are in the lateral white column of the spinal cord
Symptoms of Upper motor neuron disease Weakness of involved muscles, hypertonicity, hyperreflexia,mild disuse atrophy, and abnormal reflexes.
Examples of Upper motor neuron lesions Cerebral palsy, Hydrocephalus, ALS(both upper and lower), CVA, birth injuries, Multiple sclerosis, Huntington's chorea, TBI, Brain tumors, pseudobulbar palsy.
Describe Lower motor neuron disease Result from lesions that affect the anterior horn cell and peripheral nerve (e.g. peripheral neuropathy, cauda equina lesion, radiculopathy)
Symptoms of Lower motor neuron lesions Symptoms include flaccidity or weakness of the involved muscles, decreased tone, fasciculations, muscle atrophy, and decreased or absent reflexes
Examples of Lower motor neuron lesions Poliomyelitis, ALS(BOTH UPPER AND LOWER), Guillian-Barre syndrome, tumors involving the spinal cord, trauma, progressive muscular atrophy, infection, bell's palsy, carpal tunnel syndrome, muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular dystrophy
Intention tremors tremors absent at rest, but observable with activity and typically increase as the target approaches. Indicate a lesion of the cerebellum or its efferent pathways and also seen with multiple sclerosis
Resting tremors tremors that are observable at rest and may or may not disappear with movement. An example is the pill-rolling motion associated with Parkinson's disease
Chorea a form of hyperkinesia that presents with brief, irregular contractions that are rapid, but not to the degree of myoclonic jerks. Is typically secondary to damage to the caudate nucleus. Huntington's disease is an example of a pathology
Dystonia A Syndrome of sustained muscle contractions that frequently causes twisting, abnormal postures, and reptitive movements. Common diagnoses that may include this disorder are Parkinson's disease, Cerebral palsy, and encephalitis.
Athetosis A movement disorder that presents with slow, twisting, and writhing movements that are large in amplitude. Primarily seen in the face, tongue, trunk, and extremities. It is a common finding in several forms of Cerebral palsy due to basal ganglia pathology
Modified Ashworth scale Widely used qualitative scale for the assessment of spasticity; it measure the amount of resistance to passive stretch.
MAS GRADE 0 No increase in muscle tone
MAS GRADE 4 Affected part(s) in rigid flexion or extension
MAS GRADE 1 Slight increase in muscle tone, manifested by a catch and release or by minimal resistance at end of ROM when moved into flexion or extension.
MAS GRADE 1+ Slight increase in tone, manifested by a catch, followed by minimal resistance throughout the remained (less than half) of the ROM
MAS GRADE 2 Marked increase in muscle tone through most of the ROM, but affected parts(s) easily moved
MAS GRADE 3 Considerable increase in muscle tone, passive movement difficult
Created by: dkhan40