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-Chapter 8

QuestionAnswer
Describe the characteristics of skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle. skeletal- attached to bones and moves parts of the skeletal system. straited and voluntary. cardiac- found only in the heart, forms bulk of the heart. straited and involuntary. Smooth- located in walls of hollow internal structures.nonstraited,involunta
describe the 5 functions of muscular tissue producing body movements- running, wrtiing, and nodding rely on functions of the bones, joints, and skeletal muscle.
describe the 5 functions of muscular tissue stabilizing body positions- skeletal muscle contractionsstabilize joints and help maintain body positions such as sitting.
describe the 5 functions of muscular tissue regulating organ volume- sustained contractions of sphincters prevent outflow of contents of hollow organs.
describe the 5 functions of muscular tissue stabilizing body positions- skeletal muscle contractionsstabilize joints and help maintain body positions such as sitting.
describe the 5 functions of muscular tissue regulating organ volume- sustained contractions of sphincters prevent outflow of contents of hollow organs.
describe the 5 functions of muscular tissue producing heat- muscular tissue contracts and produces heat. example of this is shivering.
describe the 5 functions of muscular tissue moving substances within the body- cardiac muscle contractions pump the blood thhrough the body's blood vessels
describe the function of fascia. applied to a sheet or blood band of fibrous connective tissue beneath the skin or around around muscles and other organs. it holds muscles together and seperates them into functional groups.
describe the 5 functions of muscular tissue producing heat- muscular tissue contracts and produces heat. example of this is shivering.
describe the composition and function of tendon. a cord of dense regular connective tissue composed of parallel bundles of collagen fiber. the function is to attach a muscle to a bone.
describe the function of fascia. applied to a sheet or blood band of fibrous connective tissue beneath the skin or around around muscles and other organs. it holds muscles together and seperates them into functional groups.
describe the functions of sacrolemma, and t-tubules. sacrolemma- to cover muscle fiber. t-tubules-tunnel like extensions of the sacrolemma, pass through the muscle fibers from side to side.
describe the composition and function of tendon. a cord of dense regular connective tissue composed of parallel bundles of collagen fiber. the function is to attach a muscle to a bone.
describe the function of actin, tropomysin and troponin. actin- forms microfilaments or an actin filament that is twistde into a helix. tropomysin and troponin- cover the myosin binding sites on actin in relaxed muscle fibers.
describe the functions of sacrolemma, and t-tubules. sacrolemma- to cover muscle fiber. t-tubules-tunnel like extensions of the sacrolemma, pass through the muscle fibers from side to side.
describe the parts of a neuromuscular junction. motor neuron- delivers the signal called muscle actionpotential motor unit- a single motor neuron along with all muscle fibers it stimulates. motor and plate- region of the sacrolemma near the axon terminal synaptic cleft-space between the axon sacrole
describe the composition and functions of a myofibril. cylindrical structures that extend along the entire length of muscle fiber.
describe the 5 events that happen at NMJ. 1. release of acetylcholine 2.activation of ACh receptors 3. generation of muscle action potential **2 and 3 repeat 4. breakdown of ACh
describe the function of actin, tropomysin and troponin. actin- forms microfilaments or an actin filament that is twistde into a helix. tropomysin and troponin- cover the myosin binding sites on actin in relaxed muscle fibers.
describe the parts of a neuromuscular junction. motor neuron- delivers the signal called muscle actionpotential motor unit- a single motor neuron along with all muscle fibers it stimulates. motor and plate- region of the sacrolemma near the axon terminal synaptic cleft-space between the axon sacrole
describe the 5 events that happen at NMJ. 1. release of acetylcholine 2.activation of ACh receptors 3. generation of muscle action potential **2 and 3 repeat 4. breakdown of ACh
summarize the events that cause contraction and relaxtion 1. nerve impulses arrive and trigger release of ACh
summarize the events that cause contraction and relaxtion 2. ACh diffuses across synaptic cleft, binds to its receptors in the motor end plate, and triggers a muscle action potential
summarize the events that cause contraction and relaxtion 3.ACh in synaptic cleft destroys ACh so another muscle action potential doesnt arise unless more ACh is released from motor neuron
summarize the events that cause contraction and relaxtion 4.muscle action potential traveling along T tubule opens Ca release channels in the sacroplasmic recticulum membrane
summarize the events that cause contraction and relaxtion 5. Ca2+ binds to troponin on the thin filament, exposing the binding sites for myosin.
summarize the events that cause contraction and relaxtion 6.contraction: power strokes use ATP; myosin heads bind to actin, swivel, and release; thin filaments are pulled toward center of sacromere.
summarize the events that cause contraction and relaxtion 7. Ca2+ release channels in SR close and Ca2+ active transport pumps use ATP to restore low level of calcium ions in sacroplasm.
summarize the events that cause contraction and relaxtion 8. troponin- tropomyosin complex slides back into position where it blocks the myosin binding sites on actin.
describe the causes of Ducheyenne muscular Dystrophy. Ducheyenne- the gene is recessive and is carried on X chromosome and is defectd. Boys who get ot lack almost totally the muscle protein, dystrophin. Becker- they produce dystrophin, but because the protein structure is altered, the dustrophin
describe the causes of Becker Muscular Dystrophy Becker- they produce dystrophin, but because the protein structure is altered, the dystrophin doesnt function properly.
define "cramp" and summarize the causes. a sudden brief usually painful contractions of a muscle or group of muscles. may be caused by inadequate blood flow to the muscles, cafine, or smoking.
describe the causes and symptoms of fibromyalgia. causes- unknown, but can worsen with physical or mental stress, poor sleep, injury, exposure to cold. symptoms- aching stiffness, poor sleep, fatigue, anxiety, depression, pain in joints.
describe the source of pain in shin splints and their cause. source- starts along the inside of lower leg, 1-8 inches above the ankle and worsens when a runner rises up toes. cause- from running on banked tracks or crowned roads.
describe the symptoms of myasthenia gravis. weak drooping eyelids, weak eye muscles, double vision, excessive fatigue of specific muscles, difficulty speaking, swallowing, weakness of legs and arms.
describe the sources of pain in tendon inflammation and causes for tendon inflammation. sources- tendinitis may occur when strong or repeated movement creates excessive friction between tendons outer surface and an adjacent bone. symptoms- pain, swelling, and restricted movement.
describe the symptoms of a muscle strain. tenderness and swelling because of bleeding inside the muscle which is accompanied with painful spasms and visible bruising.
Created by: BriannaBollger