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APUSH Unit 4.

Chapters 13-17

QuestionAnswer
Why did the Jacksonian charge of a "corrupt bargain" to gain John Quincy Adams the presidency begin? Clay was named secretary of state after throwing his support to Adams.
Which of the following was NOT among the factors that made John Quincy Adams's presidency a political failure? Adams's involvement with correct machine deals and politicians
Andrew Jackson's appeal to the common people arose partly because... He had risen from the masses and reflected many of their prejudices in his personal attitudes and outlook.
One political development that illustrated the new popular voice in politics was... The growth of the spoils system as a basis for large political "machines"
What differences did the North and South have in the "Tariff of Abominations"? New England backed high tariffs while the South demanded lower duties.
Under the surface of the South's strong opposition to the "Tariff of Abominations" was... A fear of growing federal power that might interfere with slavery.
Some southeastern Indian tribes like the Cherokees were notable for their... Development of effective agricultural, educational, and political institutions.
In promoting his policy of Indian removal, President Andrew Jackson... Defied rulings of the US Supreme Court that favored the Cherokees.
Jackson's veto of the Bank of the United States recharter bill represented... A bold assertion of presidential power on behalf of western farmers and other debtors.
One important result of President Jackson's destruction of the Bank of the United States was... The lack of a stable banking system to finance the era of rapid industrialization.
Among the new political developments that appeared in the election of 1832 were... Third-party campaigning, national conventions, and party platforms.
What happened in the immediate aftermath of the successful Texas Revolution? Texas petitioned to join the United States but was refused admission.
The Panic of 1837 and subsequent depression were caused by... Over-speculation and Jackson's financial policies.
Who were the two most prominent leaders of the Whig Party? Henry Clay and Daniel Webster
What did the Whig party think about the federal government's role? It should have a strong role in both economic and moral issues.
New, circus-like method of nominating presidential candidates that involved wider participation but usually left effective control in the hands of the party bosses Convention
Small, short-lived third political party that originated a new method of nominating presidential candidates in the election campaign of 1831-1832 Anti-Masonic Party
Contemptuous Jacksonian term for the alleged political deal by which Clay threw his support to Adams in exchange for a high cabinet office "Corrupt bargain"
Office to which President Adams appointed Henry Clay Secretary of State
The popular idea that public offices should be handed out on the basis of political support rather than special qualifications Spoils System
Scornful southern term for the high Tariff of 1828 Tariff of Abominations
Theory promoted by John C. Calhoun and other South Carolinians that said states had the right to disregard federal laws to which they objected Nullification
The "moneyed monster" that Clay tried to preserve and that Jackson killed with his veto in 1832 Bank of the United States
Ritualistic secret societies that became the target of a momentarily powerful third party in 1832 Masons
Religious believers, originally attracted to the Anti-Masonic party and then to the Whigs, who sought to use political power for moral and religious reform Evangelicals
Two of the southeastern Indian peoples who were removed to Oklahoma Choctaws, Creeks
The sorrowful path along which thousands of southeastern Indians were removed to Oklahoma Trail of Tears
The nation from which Texas won its independence in 1836 Mexico
Anti-Jackson political party that generally stood for national community and an activist government Whigs
Popular symbols of the bogus but effective campaign the Whigs used to elect "poor-boy" William Henry Harrison in 1840 Log cabin, hard cider
Cherokee leader who devised an alphabet for his people Sequoyah
Political party that generally stressed individual liberty, the rights of the common people, and hostility to privilege Democrats
Seminole leader whose warriors killed 1500 American soldiers in years of guerrilla warfare Osceola
Former Tennessee governor whose victory at San Jacinto in 1836 won Texas its independence Sam Houston
Mexican general and dictator whose large army failed to defeat the Texans Santa Anna
Former vice president, leader of the South Carolina nullifiers, and bitter enemy of Andrew Jackson John C. Calhoun
Political party that favored a more activist government, high tariffs, internal improvements, and moral reforms Whigs
Original leader of American settlers in Texas who obtained a huge land grant from the Mexican government Stephen Austin
A frontier hero, Tennessee Congressman, and teller of tall tales who died in the Texas War for Independence David Crocket
"Old Tippecanoe," who was portrayed by Whig propagandists as a hard-drinking common man of the frontier William Henry Harrison
Jackson's rival for the presidency in 1832, who failed to save the Bank of the United States Henry Clay
The "wizard of Albany," whose economically troubled presidency was served in the shadow of Jackson Martin Van Buren
Talented but high-handed bank president who fought a bitter losing battle with the president of the United States Nicholas Biddle
Aloof New England statesman whose elitism made him an unpopular leader in the new era of mass democracy John Quincy Adams
Illinois-Wisconsin area Sauk leader who was defeated by American regulars and militia in 1832 Black Hawk
What was the effect of the growth of American migration into northern Mexico? Laid the basis for a political conflict that resulted in Texas independence
What was the effect of the demand of many whites to acquire Indian land in Georgia and other states? Fueled the political pressures that led Andrew Jackson to forcibly remove the Cherokees and others
What was the effect of the Anti-Masonic Party? Brought many evangelical Christians into politics and showed that others besides Jackson could stir up popular feelings
Cause: The failure of any candidate to win an electoral majority in the four-way election of 1824 Effect: Threw the bitterly contested election into the US House of Representatives
Cause: President Adams's strong nationalistic policies Effect: Aroused the bitter opposition of westerners and southerners, who were increasingly sectionalist
Cause: The high New England-backed Tariff of 1828 Effect: Provoked protests and threats of nullification from South Carolina
Cause: Andrew Jackson's "war" against Nicholas Biddle and his policies Effect: Got the government out of banking but weakened the American financial system
Cause: Jackson's belief that any ordinary American could hold government office Effect: Laid the foundation for the spoils system that fueled the new mass political parties
Cause: The Panic of 1837 Effect: Caused widespread human suffering and virtually guaranteed Martin Van Buren's defeat in 1840
The experience of frontier life was especially difficult for... Women
As late as 1850, over one-half of the American population was under what age? 30
The primary economic activity in the Rocky Mountain West before the Civil War was... Fur-trapping
Americans came to look on their spectacular western wilderness areas especially as... One of the things that defined and distinguished America as a new nation.
The American painter who developed the idea for a national park system was... George Caitlin
The two major sources of European immigration to American in the 1840s and 1850s were... Germany and Ireland
Nation where a potato famine in the 1840s led to a great migration of its people to America Ireland
Semisecret Irish organization that became a benevolent society aiding Irish immigrants in America Ancient Order of Hibernians
Liberal German refugees who fled failed democratic revolutions and came to America Forty-Eighters
Americans who protested and sometimes rioted against Roman Catholic immigrants Nativists/Know-Nothing Party
The transformation of manufacturing that began in Britain about 1750 Industrial Revolution
Whitney's invention that enhanced cotton production and gave new life to black slavery Cotton gin
Principle that permitted individual investors to risk no more capital in a business venture than their own share of a corporation's stock Limited liability
Morse's invention that provided instant communication across distance Telegraph
Common source of early factory labor, often underpaid, whipped, and brutally beaten Women/children
Working people's organizations, often considered illegal under early American law Union
McCormick's invention that vastly increased the productivity of the American grain farmer Mechanical reaper
The only major highway constructed by the federal government before the Civil War National Road
Fulton's invention that made river transportation a two-way affair Steamboat
"Clinton's Big Ditch" that transformed transportation and economic life across the Great Lakes region from Buffalo to Chicago Erie Canal
Beautiful but short-lived American ships, replaced by "tramp steamers" Clipper ships
Inventor of the mechanical reaper that transformed grain growing into a business Cyrus McCormick
New York governor who built the Erie Canal DeWitt Clinton
Inventor of a machine that revolutionized the ready-made clothing industry Elias Howe
Agitators against immigrants and Roman Catholics Know-Nothings
Wealthy New York manufacturer who laid the first temporary transatlantic cable in 1858 Cyrus Field
Immigrant mechanic who initiated American industrialization by setting up his cotton-spinning factory in 1791 Samuel Slater
Painter turned inventor who developed the first reliable system for instant communication across distance Samuel F.B. Morse
Developer of a "folly" that made rivers two-way streams of transportation Robert Fulton
Radical, secret Irish labor union of the 1860s and 1870s Molly Maguires
Yankee mechanical genius who revolutionized cotton production and created the system of interchangeable parts Eli Whitney
Pioneering Massachusetts Supreme Court decision that declared labor unions legal Commonwealth v. Hunt
Cause: The open, rough-and-tumble society of the American West Effect: Made Americans strongly individualistic and self-reliant
Cause: Natural population growth and increasing immigration from Ireland and Germany Effect: Made the fast-growing United State the fourth most populous nation in the Western world
Cause: The poverty and Roman Catholic faith of most Irish immigrants Effect: Aroused nativist hostility and occasional riots
Cause: Eli Whitney's invention of the cotton gin Effect: Transformed southern agriculture and gave new life to slavery
Cause: The passage of general incorporation and limited-liability laws Effect: Enabled businesspeople to create more powerful and effective joint-stock capital ventures
Cause: The early efforts of labor unions to organize and strike Effect: Aroused fierce opposition from businesspeople and guardians of law
Cause: Improved western transportation and the new McCormick reaper Encouraged western farmers to specialize in cash-crop agricultural production for eastern and European markets
Cause: The completion of the Erie Canal in 1825 Effect: Opened the Great Lakes states to rapid economic growth and suprred the development of major cities
Cause: The development of a strong east-west rail network Effect: Bound the two northern sections together across the mountains and tended to isolate the South
Cause: The replacement of household production by factory-made, store-bought goods Effect: Weakened many women's economic status and pushed them into a separate "sphere" of home and family
The tendency toward nationalism and indifference in religion was reversed around 1800 by... The revivalist movement called the Second Great Awakening
Two denominations that especially gained adherents among the common people of the West and South were... Methodists and Baptists
The Second Great Awakening derived its religious strength especially from... The popular preaching of evangelical revivalists both in the West and eastern cities
Evangelical preachers like Charles Grandison Finney linked personal religious conversion to... The Christian reform of social problems
The term "Burned-Over District" refers to.. The region of western New York State that experienced especially frequent and intense revivals
The major effect of the growing slavery controversy on the churches was... The split of Baptists, Methodists, and Presbyterians into separate northern and southern churches
Besides their practice of polygamy, the Mormons aroused hostility from many Americans because of... Their cooperative economic practices that ran contrary to American economic individualism
The major promoter of an effective tax-supported system of public education for all American children was... Horace Mann
Reformer Dorthea Dix worked for the cause of... Better treatment of the mentally ill
One cause of women's subordination in nineteenth-century America was... The sharp division of labor that separated women at home from men in the workplace.
The Seneca Falls Convention launched the modern women's rights movement with its call for... Equal rights, including the right to vote.
Many of the American utopian experiments of the early nineteenth century focused on... Communal economics and alternative sexual arrangements
Two leading female imaginative writers who added to New England's literary prominence were... Louisa May Alcott and Emily Dickinson
The Knickerbocker Group of American writers included... Washington Irving, James Fenimore Cooper, and William Cullen Bryant
The transcendentalist writers such as Emerson, Thoreau, and Fuller stressed the ideas of... Inner truth and individual self-reliance
Liberal religious belief, held by many of the Founding Fathers, that stressed rationalism and moral behavior rather than Christian revelation Deism
Religious revival that began on the frontier and swept eastward, stirring an evangelical spirit in many areas of American life Second Great Awakening
Two two religious denominations that benefited from the evangelical revivals of the early nineteenth century Methodists, Baptists
Religious group founded by Joseph Smith that eventually established a cooperative commonwealth in Utah Mormons
Memorable 1848 meeting in New York where women made an appeal based on the Declaration of Independence Seneca Falls Convention
Commune established in Indiana by Scottish industrialist Robert Owen New Harmony
Intellectual commune in Massachusetts based on "plain living and high thinking" Brook Farm
Thomas Jefferson's stately self-designed home in Virginia that became a model of American architecture Monticello
New York literary movement that drew on both regional and national themes Knickerbocker Group
The doctrine, promoted by American writer Henry David Thoreau in an essay of the same name, that later influenced Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr. Civil disobedience
Walt Whitman's shocking collection of emotional poems Leaves of Grass
Philosophical and literary movement, centered in New England, that greatly influenced many American writers of the early nineteenth century Transcendentalism
A disturbing New England masterpiece about adultery and guilt in the old Puritan era The Scarlet Letter
The great but commercially unsuccessful novel about Captain Ahab's obsessive pursuit of a white whale Moby Dick
The masterpiece of New England writer Louisa May Alcott Little Women
Quietly determined reformer who substantially improved conditions for the mentally ill Dorthea Dix
The "Mormon Moses" who led persecuted Latter-Day Saints to their promised land in Utah Brigham Young
Leading feminist who wrote the "Declaration of Sentiments" in 1848 and pushed for women's suffrage Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Quaker women's rights advocate who also strongly supported the abolition of slavery Lucretia Mott
Reclusive New England poet who wrote about love, death, and immortality Emily Dickinson
Influential evangelical revivalist of the Second Great Awakening Charles G. Finney
Idealistic Scottish industrialist whose attempt at a communal utopia in America failed Robert Owen
Leader of a radical New York commune that practiced "complex marriage" and eugenic birth control John Humphrey Noyes
Pioneering women's educator, founder of Mount Holyoke Seminary in Massachusetts Mary Lyon
Novelist whose tales of family life helped economically support her own struggling transcendentalist family Louisa May Alcott
Path-breaking American novelist who contrasted the natural person of the forest with the values of modern civilization James Fenimore Cooper
Second-rate poet and philosopher, but first-rate promoter of transcendentalist ideals and American culture Ralph Waldo Emerson
Bold, unconventional poet who celebrated American democracy Walt Whitman
Eccentric southern-born genius whose tales of mystery, suffering, and the supernatural departed from general American literary trends Edgar Allen Poe
New York writer whose romantic sea tales were more popular than his dark literary masterpiece Herman Melville
Cause: The Second Great Awakening Effect: Inspired a widespread spirit of evangelical reform in many areas of American life
Cause: The Mormon practice of polygamy Effect: Aroused persecution from morally traditionalist Americans and delayed statehood for Utah
Cause: Women abolitionists' anger at being ignored by male reformers Effect: Led to expanding the crusade for equal rights to include women
Cause: The women's rights movement Effect: Aroused hostility and scorn in most of the males press and pulpit
Cause: Unrealistic expectations and conflict within perfectionist communes Effect: Caused most utopian experiments to decline or collapse in a few years
Cause: The Knickerbocker and transcendentalist use of new American themes in their writing Effect: Created the first lterature genuinely native to America
Cause: Henry David Thoreau's theory of "civil disobedience" Effect: Inspired later practitioners of nonviolence like Gandhi and King
Cause: Walt Whitman's "Leaves of Grass" Effect: Captured in one long poem the exuberant and optimistic spirit of popular American democracy
Cause: Herman Melville's and Edgar Allen Poe's concern with evil and suffering Effect: Made their works little understood in their lifetimes by generally optimistic Americans
Cause: The Transcendentalist movement Effect: Inspired writers like Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, and Margaret Fuller
The primary market for southern cotton production was... Britain
The invention that transformed the southern cotton economy was... The cotton gin
A large portion of the profits from cotton growing went to what two groups? Northern traders and European manufacturers
Among the economic consequences of the South's cotton economy was... A dependence on the North for trade and manufacturing
How many slaves did most southern slaveholders have? Fewer than ten
Even though they owned no slaves, most southern whites supported the slave system because... They felt racially superior to blacks and hoped to be able to buy slaves
The only group of white southerners who strongly opposed slavery and the slaveowners were... Appalachian mountain whites
True or false: Free blacks were treated better in the North than the South. False. They were treated just as badly and sometimes worse in the North
Most of the growth in the African American slave population before 1860 came from... Natural reproduction
Most slaveowners treated their slaves as... Economically profitable investments
True or false: The African American family under slavery was generally stable and mutually supportive. True
Most of the early abolitionists were motivated by... Religious feeling against the "sin" of slavery
Frederick Douglass and some other abolitionists sought to end slavery by... Promoting antislavery political movements like the Free Soil and Republican parties
After 1830, most southerners came to look on slavery as... A positive good
By the 1850s, most northerners could be described as having what outlook on slavery? Opposed to slavery but also hostile to immediate abolitionists
Term for the South that emphasized its economic dependence on a single staple product Cotton Kingdom
Prosouthern New England textile owners who were economically tied to the southern "lords of the lash" "Lords of the loom"
British novelist whose romantic vision of a feudal society made him highly popular in the South Sir Walter Scott
The poor, vulnerable group that was the object of prejudice in the North and despised as a "third race" in the South Free blacks
Theodore Dwight Weld's powerful antislavery book American Slavery as It Is
The area of the South where most slaves were held, stretching from South Carolina across to Louisiana Black Belt
Organization founded in 1817 to send blacks to Africa American Colonization Society
The group of theology students, led by Theodore Dwight Weld, who were expelled for abolitionist activity and later became leading preachers of the anti-slavery gospel Lane Rebels
William Lloyd Garrison's fervent abolitionist newspaper that preached an immediate end to slavery "The Liberator"
Garrisonian abolitionist organization, founded in 1833, that included the eloquent Wendell Phillips among its leaders American Anti-Slavery Society
Strict rule passed by prosouthern Congressmen in 1836 to prohibit all discussion of slavery in the House of Representatives Gag Resolution
Northern antislavery politicians, like Abraham Lincoln, who rejected radical abolitionism but sought to prohibit the expansion of slavery in the western territories Free Soil Party
Wealthy New York abolitionist merchant whose home was demolished by a mob in 1834 Lewis Tappan
Visionary black preacher whose bloody slave rebellion in 1831 tightened the reins of slavery in the South Nat Turner
Midwestern institution whose president expelled eighteen students for organizing a debate on slavery Lane Theological Seminary
New York free black woman who fought for emancipation and women's rights Sojourner Truth
Leading radical abolitionist who burned the Constitution as a "covenant with death and an agreement with hell" William Lloyd Garrison
Author of an abolitionist novel that portrayed the separation of slave families by auction Harriet Beecher Stowe
Site of the last major southern debate over slavery and emancipation, in 1831-1832 Virginia legislature
English novelist whose romantic medievalism encouraged the semifeudal ideals of the southern planter aristocracy Sir Walter Scott
Black abolitionist who visited West Africa in 1859 to examine sites where African Americans might relocate Martin Delany
Former president who fought for the right to discuss slavery in Congress John Quincy Adams
Illinois editor whose death at the hands of a mob made him an abolitionist martyr Elijah Lovejoy
West African republic founded in 1822 by freed blacks from the United States Liberia
Escaped slave and great black abolitionist who fought to end slavery through political action Frederick Douglass
Black abolitionist writer who called for a bloody end to slavery in an appeal of 1829 David Walker
Leader of the "Lane Rebels" who wrote the powerful antislavery work American Slavery As It Is Theodore Dwight Weld
Cause: Whitney's cotton gin and southern frontier expansionism Effect: Turned the South into a booming one-crop economy where "cotton was king"
Cause: Excessive soil cultivation and financial speculation Effect: Created dangerous weaknesses beneath the surface prosperity of the southern cotton economy
Cause: Belief in white superiority and the hope of owning slaves Effect: Kept poor, non-slaveholding whites committed to a system that actually harmed them
Cause: The selling of slaves at auctions Effect: Often resulted in the cruel separation of black families
Cause: The slaves' love of freedom and hatred of their condition Effect: Caused slaves to work slowly, steal from their masters, and frequently run away
Cause: The religious fervor of the Second Great Awakening Effect: Stirred a fervent abolitionist commitment to fight the "sin" of slavery
Cause: Politically minded abolitionists like Frederick Douglass Effect: Opposed Garrison and organized the Liberty party and the Free Soil party
Cause: Garrison's Liberator and Nat Turner's bloody slave rebellion Effect: Aroused deep fears of rebellion and ended rational discussion of slavery in the South
Cause: White southern defenses of slavery as a "positive good" Widened the moral and political gap between the white South and the rest of the Western world
Cause: The constant abolitionist agitation in the North Effect: Made abolitionists personally unpopular but convinced many Northerners that slavery was a threat to American freedom
The conflict between President Tyler and Whig leaders like Henry Clay took place over issues of... Banking and tariff policy
Among the major sources of the tension between Britain and the US in the 1840s was... American involvement in Canadian rebellions and border disputes
What was the Aroostook War? A battle between American and Canadian lumberjacks over the northern Maine boundary
During the early 1840s, Texas maintained its independence by... Establishing friendly relations with Britain and other European powers
True or false: Britain strongly supported an independent Texas because it was interested in eventually incorporating Texas into the British empire. False
Texas was finally admitted to the Union in 1844 as a result of... President Tyler's interpretation of the election of 1844 as a "mandate" to acquire Texas
"Manifest Destiny" represented the widespread American belief that... God had destined the US to expand across the whole North American continent
Britain eventually lost out in the contest for the disputed Oregon territory because... The rapidly growing number of American settlers overwhelmed the small British population
Henry Clay lost the election of 1844 to James Polk because... His attempt to straddle the Texas annexation issue lost him votes to the antislavery Liberty Party in New York
The final result of the British-American conflict over the Oregon country in 1844-1846 was... A compromise agreement on a border at the 49th parallel
The immediate cause of the Mexican War was... Mexican refusal to sell California and a dispute over the Texas boundary
The phrase "spot resolutions" refers to... Congressman Abraham Lincoln's resolution demanding to know the exact spot of American soil where American blood had supposedly been shed
The main American military campaign that finally captured Mexico City was commanded by... General Winfield Scott
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ending the Mexican War provided for... American acquisition of about half of Mexico and payment of several million dollars in compensation
The major domestic consequence of the Mexican War was... A sharp revival of the issue of slavery
British colony where Americans regularly aided anti-government rebels Canada
State where "Aroostook War" was fought over a disputed boundary with Canada Maine
Nation that strongly backed independence for Texas, hoping to turn it into an economic asset and antislavery bastion Britain
Antislavery Whigs who opposed both the Texas annexation and the Mexican War on moral grounds Conscience Whigs
Act of both houses of Congress by which Texas was annexed Joint Resolution
Northern boundary of Oregon territory jointly occupied with Britain, advocated by Democratic party and others as the desired line of American expansion 54 40'
2000 mile long path along which thousands of Americans journeyed to the Willamette Valley in the 1840s Oregon Trail
The widespread American belief that God had ordained the US to occupy all the territory of North America Manifest Destiny
Small antislavery party that took enough votes from Henry Clay to cost him the election of 1844 Liberty Party
Final compromise line that settled the Oregon boundary dispute in 1846 49th parallel
Rich Mexican province that Polk tried to buy and Mexico refused to sell California
River that Mexico claimed as the Texas-Mexico boundary, crossed by Taylor's troops in 1846 Nueces River
Resolution offered by Congressman Abraham Lincoln demanding to know the precise location where Mexicans had allegedly shed American blood on "American" soil Spot Resolution
Treaty ending Mexican War and granting vast territories to the US Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Controversial amendment, which passed the House but not the Senate, stipulating the slavery should be forbidden in territory acquired from Mexico Wilmot Proviso
Congressional author of the "spot resolutions" criticizing the Mexican War Abraham Lincoln
"Old Fuss and Feathers," whose conquest of Mexico City brought US victory in the Mexican War Winfield Scott
Leader of Senate Whigs and unsuccessful presidential candidate against Polk in 1844 Henry Clay
Long-winded American diplomat who negotiated the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Nicholas Trist
Whig leader and secretary who negotiated an end to Maine boundary dispute in 1842 Daniel Webster
Claimed by United States as southern boundary of Texas Rio Grande
Dashing explorer/adventurer who led the overthrow of Mexican rule in California after war broke out John C. Fremont
Clash between Canadians and Americans over disputed timber country Aroostook War
Mexican military leader who failed to stop humiliating American invasion of his country Santa Anna
Independent nation that was the object of British, Mexican, and French scheming in the early 1840s Texas
American military hero who invaded northern Mexico from Texas in 1846-1847 Zachary Taylor
Congressional author of resolution forbidding slavery in territory acquired from Mexico David Wilmot
Dark-horse presidential winner in 1844 who effectively carried out ambitious expansionist campaign plans James K. Polk
Northwestern territory in dispute between Britain and US, subject of "Manifest Destiny" rhetoric in 1844 Oregon
Leader elected vice president on the Whig ticket who spent most of his presidency in bitter feuds with his fellow Whigs John Tyler
Cause: Tyler's refusal to carry out his own Whig Party's policies Effect: Split the Whigs and caused the entire cabinet except Webster to resign
Cause: Strong American hostility to Britain Effect: Sparked bitter feuds over Canadian rebels, the boundaries of Maine and Oregon, and other issues
Cause: British support for the Texas Republic Effect: Increased American determination to annex Texas
Cause: Rapidly growing American settlement in Oregon Effect: Strengthened American claims to the Columbia River country and made Britain more willing to compromise
Cause: The upsurge of Manifest Destiny in the 1840s Effect: Created widespread popular support for Polk's expansionist policies on Texas, Oregon, and California
Cause: Clay's unsuccessful attempts to straddle the Texas issue Effect: Turned antislavey voters to the Liberty party and helped elect the expansionist Polk
Cause: Polk's frustration at Mexico's refusal to sell California Effect: Helped lead to a controversial confrontation with Mexico along the Texas border
Cause: The overwhelming American military victory over Mexico Effect: Enabled the US to take vast territories in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Cause: The rapid Senate ratification of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Effect: Thwarted a growing movement calling for the US to annex all of Mexico
Cause: The Wilmot Proviso Effect: Heated up the slavery controversy between North and South
Created by: ejustice75