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Mirando -Ch. 17

Terms for Chapter 17 in Mr. Mirando's class.

TermDefinition
Enlightenment. A cultural movement of intellectuals in 18th century, first in Europe and later in the American colonies.
Philosophe. The intellectuals of the 18th century Enlightenment.
Science of Mar.? ?
Tabula Rasa. The epistemological theory that individuals are born without built-in mental content and that their knowledge comes from experience and perception.
Georges-Louis Buffon. Was a French naturalist, mathematician, cosmologist, and encyclopedic author.
Republic of Letters. The long-distance intellectual community in the late 17th and 18th century in Europe and America. It fostered communication among the intellectuals of Age of Enlightenment, or "philosophes" as they were called in France.
Montesquieu. Was a French social commentator and political thinker who lived during the Enlightenment.
Voltaire. Was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit and for his advocacy of civil liberties, including freedom of religion, freedom of expression, free trade and separation of church and state.
"écrasez l'infâme". "crush the infamous."
Denis Diderot. Was a French philosopher, art critic, and writer. He was a prominent person during the Enlightenment and is best known for serving as co-founder and chief editor of and contributor to the Encyclopédie along with Jean le Rond d'Alembert.
The Encyclopedia. Was a general encyclopedia published in France between 1751 and 1772, with later supplements, revised editions, and translations. It was edited by Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Was a Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer of 18th-century Romanticism of French expression. His political philosophy influenced the French Revolution as well as the overall development of modern political, sociological and educational thought.
Methodism. a movement of Protestant Christianity represented by a number of denominations and organizations, claiming a total of approximately seventy million adherents worldwide.
Lending Libraries. A library from which books are lent out.
William Hogarth. Was an English painter, printmaker, pictorial satirist, social critic and editorial cartoonist who has been credited with pioneering western sequential art.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era.
Salons. A gathering of people under the roof of an inspiring host, held partly to amuse one another and partly to refine the taste and increase the knowledge of the participants through conversation.
Enlightened Absolutism. A form of absolute monarchy or despotism in which rulers were influenced by the Enlightenment.
Beccaria. Was an Italian jurist, philosopher and politician best known for his treatise On Crimes and Punishments (1764), which condemned torture and the death penalty, and was a founding work in the field of penology.
Joseph II. Was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Hapsburg lands from 1780 to 1790.
Edict of Toleration. A declaration made by a ruler and states that members of a given religion will not be persecuted for engaging in their religious practices and traditions. The edict implies tacit acceptance of the religion rather than its endorsement by the ruling power.
Frederick II (Great). Was a King in Prussia (1740–1772) and a King of Prussia (1772–1786) from the Hohenzollern dynasty.
Catherine the Great. Was the most renowned and the longest-ruling female leader of Russia, reigning from 9 July [O.S. 28 June] 1762 until her death at the age of 67.
Charter of the Nobility. A charter issued by the Russian empress Catherine II.
Physiocrats. An economic theory developed by the Physiocrats, a group of economists who believed that the wealth of nations was derived solely from the value of "land agriculture" or "land development."
Laissez-faire. An economic environment in which transactions between private parties are free from tariffs, government subsidies, and enforced monopolies, with only enough government regulations sufficient to protect property rights against theft and aggression.
Immanuel Kant. Was a German philosopher from Königsberg in Prussia (today Kaliningrad, Russia) who researched, lectured and wrote on philosophy and anthropology during the Enlightenment at the end of the 18th century.
John Wesley. Qas an Anglican cleric and Christian theologian.
Francois Quesnay. Was a French economist of the Physiocratic school.
Created by: MattyIceTurner