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Stack #109489

Skeletal System

skeletal systemchapter 3
ankyl/o crooked, bent, stiff
arthr/o joint
chondr/o cartilage
cost/o rib
crani/o skull
-desis surgical fixation of bone or joint
kyph/o bent, hump
lord/o curve, swayback bent
-lysis destruction, loosening
myel/o bone marrow, spinal cord
oss/e, oss/i, ost/o, oste/o bone
-poietic formation
spondyl/o vertebrae, back bone
-um noun ending
red bone marrow in spongy bone, makes red and white blood cells, hemoglobin, and megakaryocytes
yellow bone marrow in medullary cavity, made of fat cells and functions as fat storage area
periosteum tough, fibrous tissue that forms outermost covering of bone
compact bone hard, dense, very strong, outer layer
spongy bone lighter, commonly found in ends and inner portions of long bones
medullary cavity in shaft of long bone, lined with endosteum
cartilage rubbery connective tissue acts as shock absorber between bones
articular cartilage covers surfaces of bones to make smooth joint movement
meniscus curved fibrous cartialge found in some joints like knee and tmj of jaw
diaphysis shaft of long bone
epiphisis wide end of long bone covered with articular cartilage
proximal epiphysis end of bone nearest to midline
distal epiphysis end of bone farthest away from midline
foramen opening in bone which blood vessels, nerves nd ligaments pass
process normal projuction on surface of bone for attaching muscles and tendons to.
articulations joints
sutures jagged line where bones join and form a joint that doesn't move
symphyses cartilaginous joints, two bones held firmly together so they function as 1 bone
synovial joints movable joints, ball and socket, hinge
ligaments fibrous connective tissue that connects 1 bone to another bone
synovial membrane and fluid membrane secretes lubricant to make smooth joint movement
bursa fibrous sac acts as a cushion to ease movement
axial skeleton protects major organs of nervous, respiratory, and circulatory systems
axial skeleton consists of skull, spinal column, ribs, and sternum
appendicular skeleton makes movement possible and protects organs of digestion, excretion, and reproduction systems
appendicular skeleton consists of shoulders, arms, hands, hips, legs, and feet
7 bones of cranium frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, sphenoid, and ethmoid
auditory ossicles bones of middle ear
external auditory meatus external opening of ear located in temporal bone
8 bones of face zygomatic (cheekbones), maxillary (upper jawbone), palatine, lacrimal, inferior conchae, vomer (nasal septum), mandible (lower jawbone), hyoid bone
thoracic cavity rib cage, protects heart and lungs
costals ribs, 7 pairs true ribs, 3 pairs false ribs, 2 pairs floating ribs
sternum breastbone, manubrium (uppermost), body (middle), xiphoid process (cartilage, lowermost)
pectoral girdle clavical (collor bone), scapula (shoulder blade), acromion (high point of shoulder)
arms humerus (upper), radius (smaller bone of forarm), ulna (larger bone of forarm), alecranon process (funny bone, point of elbow)
wrists and hands carpals (8 bones of wrist), metacarpals (palm of hand), phalanges ( fingers, distal, medial, and proximal)
vertebrae 26 vertebrae, body (anterior portion), lamina (posterior portion), foramen ( opening for spinal cord)
vertebral column cervical (first set of 7, forms neck), thoracic (next set of 12, outward curve), lumbar (last set of 5, inward curve)
intervertebral disks made of cartilage, separate and cushion vertebrae
sacrum curved triangular bone at base of spine
coccyx tailbone
pelvic girdle ilium (blade-shaped part of hip), sacroiliac (slightly moveable joint between sacrum and ilium), ischium (lower posterior portion), pubis (anterior portion), acetabulum (large socket for head of femur)
upper leg femur, head (articulates with hip), femoral neck (narrow area just below head), trochanter (2 large projections on upper end just below neck)
knees patella (anterior portion), papliteal (posterior surface), anterior/posterior cruciate ligament (shaped like cross, make movement possible)
lower leg tibia (shinbone, larger weight-bearing bone, anterior), fibula (smaller bone)
ankles and feet tarsals (bones of ankle), malleolus (round boney protuberance), talus (articualtes with tibia and fibula), calcaneus (heel bone), metatarsals (bones of foot), phalanges (bones of toes)
orthopedic surgeon specializes in diagnosing , treating diseases and disorders of bones, joints, and muscles
osteopathic physician specialize in treating health problems by manipulation
podiatrist specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the foot
rheumatologist specializes in diagnosis and treatment of rheumatic diseases
rheumatism acute/crhonic conditions of inflammation and deterioration of connective tissues
hallux valgus bunion, abnormal enlargment of joint at base of great toe
luxation dislocation of bone from joint
subluxation partial displacement of bone from joint
arthritis joint, inflammation
osteoarthritis wear/tear, most common with aging
gouty arthritis formation of uric acid crystals in joints
rheumatoid arthritis autoimmune disorder, synovial membranes are inflamed and thicked causing joints to be swollen, painful and immobile
ankylosing spondylitis progressive stiffening of spine caused by fusion of vertebral bodies
herniated disk rupture of disk that results in pressure on spinal nerve roots
lumbago low back pain
-listhesis slipping
kyphosis abnormal increase in outward curvature of thoracic spine (humpback, dowager's hump)
lordosis abnormal increase in forward curvature of lumbar spine (swayback)
scoliosis abnormal lateral curvature of spine
exostosis benign growth of surface of bone
paget's disease osteitis deformans, extensive bone destruction followed by abnormal bone repair
rickets calcium and vitamin D deficiencies in early childhood
talipes clubfoot, foot may be turned in or out
sarcoma malignant tumor of connective tissue
ewing's sarcoma usually occur in diaphyses of long bones in arms and legs
osteoperosis loss of bone density and increase in bone porosity associated with aging
greenstick fracture incomplete, hairline, bone is partially bent or broken
closed fracture simple/complete, transverse (straight across), oblique (at an angle), bone is broken but no open wound
open fracture compound, bone is broken and there is an open wound
comminuted fracture bone is splintered or crushed
compression fracture bone is pressed together on itself
spiral fracture bone is twisted apart
stress fracture small crack in bone from chronic excessive impact
fat embolus when long bone is fractured and fat cells from yellow bone marrow are feleased into blood
crepitation crackling sensation felt and heard when broken ends move together
callus bulging deposit around area of break
bone density testing bone mass measurement, densitomenty, several types of radiation to determine bone density
autologous transplant using patient's own bone marrow
allogenic transplant using bone marrow from a donor
-clasis break
manipulation closed reduction, application of manually applied forces then immobilized
traction pulling force exerted on limb in distal direction
immobilization stabilization
external fixation pins placed through soft tissues and bone so an external appliance can be used to hold bone firmlu in place
internal fixation open reduction, pins or plate placed directly into bone to hold pieces in place
Created by: worker