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Stack #109460

Human Body in Health & Disease

Human Body in Health & Diseasechapter 2
aden/o gland
adip/o fat
caud/o lower part of body, tail
cephal/o head
col/o colon, large intestine
coron/o coronary, crown
cyt/o cell
hepat/o liver
hist/o tissue
hyster/o uterus
lapar/o abdomen, abdomen wall
nephr/o kidney
oste/o bone
path/o disease, suffering, feeling
retr/o behind, backward, back of
anatomy study of structures of body
physiology study of functions of structures
vertical plane up-down line
midsagittal midline
sagittal unequal left/right portions
coronal plane frontal plane, front/back portions
horizontal plane transverse plane, top/bottom portions
ventral front, belly side
dorsal back side
anterior front, forward part
posterior back part
superior uppermost, above
inferior lowermost, below
cephalic toward head
caudal toward lower part of body
proximal nearest midline or begining of body structure
distal farthest from midline or begining of body structure
medial toward or nearer midline
lateral toward or nearer side away from midline
bilateral having two sides
dorsal cavity protects nervouse system, cranial and spinal cavity
cranial cavity within skull, protects brain
spinal cavity within spinal column, protects spinal cord
ventral cavity contains many body organs that maintain homeostasis, thoracic, abdoninal, and pelvic cavity
thoracic cavity chest cavity, protects heart and lungs
abdoninal cavity contains major organs of digestion
pelvic cavity contains organs of reproductive and excretory systems
quadrants of abdomen RUQ, LUQ, RLQ, LLQ
9 regions of thorax and abdomen R/L hypochondriac, epigastric, R/L lumbar, umbilical, R/L iliac, hypogastric(inguinal,groin)
peritoneum membrane that protects and supports organs in abdomen
parietal peritoneum outer layer of membrane
visceral peritoneum inner layer of membrane
mesentery layer that suspends parts of intestine
ascites abnormal accumulation of clear/milky fluid
laparoscopy visual exam of interior of abdomen
cytology study of formation, structure, and function of cells
cell membrane surrounds and protects the cell
cytoplasm material within the cell membrane not part of nucleus
nucleus controls activities of cell, helps cell divide
chromosomes 22 identical pairs, 1 pair to determine sex of child
gametes sex cells, 23 single chromosomes
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid
genes functional units of heredity
genetics study of role of genes in health and disease
genetic disorders hereditary disorders
cyctic fibrosis GD disorder of exocrine gland
down syndrome GD trisomy 21, degrees of mental retardation and physical abnormalities
hemophilia GD group of bleeding disorders
huntington's disease GD or chorea, progressive loss of muscle control and mental ability
muscular dystrophy GD progressive weakness of muscle fibers
phenylketonuria GD essential digestive enzyme is missing
sickle cell anemia GD genes produce abnormal hemoglobin in red blood cells
tay-sachs disease GD progressive physical degeneration, mental retardation, early death
congenital disorders abnormal condition at time of birth
developmental disorder CD anomaly or malformation
prenatal influences CD mother's health and prenatal care
birth injuries CD not presnet before birth
histology study of structure, composition and function of tissues
stem cells precursor cells, divide without limit
epithelial tissue form protective covering for all internal and external surfaces
epithelium forms epidermis of skin nad mucous membrane
endothelium lines blood and lymph vessels, body cavities, glands and organs
connective tissue supports and connects organs and other body tissues
dense connective tissue bone, cartilage
adipose tissue provides padding, insulation, support and nutrient reserve
loose connective tissue surrounds organs and supports nerve and blood vessels
liquid connective tissue blood and lymph
muscle tissue ability to contract and relax
nerve tissue ability to react to stimuli and conduct electrical impulses
-plasia formation
a- without
ana- excessive
exocrine glands secrete into ducts that lead outside body
endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into bloodstream
-oma tumor, benign
pathology study of structural and functional changes coused by disease
etiology study of causes of disease
communicable disease contagious, direct or indirect contact with contaminated objects
bloodborne transmission contact with blood/body fluids that are contaminated
sexually transmitted venereal, direct contact
airborne transmission contact with material from cough or sneeze
food/waterborne transmission eating or drinking contaminated food or water
epidemiologist studies outbreaks of diseases within a population
endemic ongoing presence of disease
epidemic sudden and widespread outbreak of disease
pandemic occurring over large area, possibly worldwide
infectious disease illness caused by pathogenic organism
idiopathic disorder illness without known cause
organic disorder physical changes that explain the symptons being experienced
functional disorder no detectable physical changes to explain symptoms being experienced
iatrogenic illness unfavorable response to medical treatment
nosocomial infection hospital aquired infection not present on admission
Created by: worker