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Ch8 Muscular System

Describe the cause of Ducheyenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy. -caused by the gene defect, carried in the x chromosome mainly in males.
Define "cramp" and summarize their causes. -a sudden, brief, usually painful contraction of a muscle or group of muscles caused by inadequate blood flow, low blood levels of electrolytes, and low potassium levels
Describe the causes and symptoms of Fibromyalgia. -symptoms are achy pain and stiffness in soft tissues, including muscles, tendons and ligaments causes are unknown. Generalized fibromyalgia is worsened by stress, strains, and lack of sleep.
Describe the source of pain in shin splints and their cause. -pain resulting in shin and cause muscle along shin. Anterior and lateral muscles around shins.
Describe the symptoms of a muscle strain. -is the term for a moderate amount of damage to muscle fibers. Limited bleeding inside muscles cause tenderness and swelling, which may be accompanied by painful spasms. Visible bruising may follow.
Describe the sources of pain in tendon inflammation. -may affect the tendons itself (tendinitis) or the inner lining of fibrous sheaths that enclose some tendons (tenosynovitis).
Describe the causes of tendon inflammation. Tenodonitis: may occur when strong/repeated movement creates excessive friction between tendons outer surface & adjacent bone. Tenosynovitis: may be caused by overstretching or repeated movements
Describe the symptoms of myasthenia gravis. -is marked by severe muscle weakness and fatigue. Caused by antibodies that gradually reduce the number of receptors in the fibers that stimulate muscle contractions.
Describe the characteristics of skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle. Skeletal:attached to bones & moves parts of the skeleton, striated/voluntary. Cardiac:only in heart,bulk around heart, pumps blood through blood vessels, striated/involuntary. Smooth:located in walls of hollow internal structures, nonstriated/nonvoluntary
Describe the function of fascia. -is applied to a sheet or broad band of fibrous connective tissue beneath the skin or around muscles and other organs of the body. Two types: superficial and deep
Describe the composition and function of tendon. -a cord of dense regular connective tissue composed of parallel bundles of collagen. It's function is to attach a muscle to a bone.
Describe the function of sarcolemma and t-tubules. -sarcolemma: a plasma membrane that covers each muscle fiber t-tubules: tunnel-like extensions of the sarcolemma, pass through the muscle fiber from side to side.
Describe the function and composition of a myofibril. -a reddish pigment, stores oxygen until needed by mitochondria to generate ATP, extends along the entire length of the muscle fiber. They consist of two types of protein filaments (thin & thick) which don't extend the entire length of a muscle fiber.
Describe the function of actin, tropomysin, and troponin. -actin:protein that joins to form actin filament that is twisted into helix. Each contains myosin-binding site for a myosin head. Filament has 2 other proteins: tropomysin/toponin tropomysin/toponin:cover the m-b sites on actin in relaxed muscle fibers
Describe the parts of a neuromuscular junction. muscle action potential:electrical signal stimulates it to contract motor neuron:delivers signal motor unit:single motor neuron along w/ all muscle fibers motor end plate:region of sarcolemma near axon termial cleft:space between axon termial/sarcolem
Describe the 4 events that happen at an NMJ. 1.Release of acetylcholine 2.Activation of ACh receptors 3.Generation of muscle action potential 4.Breakdown of ACh
Summarize the events that cause contractions and relaxation in a skeletal muscle fiber. -ACh stops being released. AChE breaks down remaining ACh. Calcium ions are transported from sarcoplasm to sarcoplasmic reticulum making Ca2+ fall in the sarcoplasm. Thin filaments fall back to normal levels.
Created by: ToriZorich09



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