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Stack #1088009

Chapter 4

Frederick II a Prussian king who at first liked flute and poetry, but after years in forced solitary confinement by his father Frederick William I, he became a brilliant military commander
Louis XIV the French king who took over in 1643, was aided by Cardinal Mazarin, and took over the complete government, ruling by divine right after Mazarin's death in 1661
Autocratic having unlimited power
Maria Theresa the intelligent and capable daughter of Charles IV who became the first woman to rule the Hapsburg empire in her own name
Ferdinand the Catholic Hapsburg king of Bohemia who sought to suppress Protestants and to assert royal power over nobles; was elected Holy Roman Emperor
Depopulation a reduction in the number of people in an area
Peter the Great a Russian tsar who gained absolute power; westernized Russia; expanded Russia's borders
St. Petersburg capital city and major port established by Peter the Great in 1703
Levee morning ritual during which nobles would wait upon French King Louis XIV
Miguel de Cervantes author of Don Quixote, which pokes fun at medieval tales of chivalry; wrote the first modern European novel
Cabinet Parliamentary advisors to the king, who originally met in a small room
Frederick William I a Prussian ruler who gained the loyalty of Prussian nobles by giving them positions in the army and government
Peace of Westphalia a series of treaties that ended the Thirty Year's War
Dissenters Protestants whose views and opinions differed from those of the Church of England
Puritans a group of dissenters who sought to "purify" the Church of Catholic practices
Limited Monarchy a government in which a constitution or legislative body limits the monarch's power
Charles I imprisoned his foes without trial; squeezed the nation for money; signed the Petition of Right; led the Cavaliers against the Roundheads in the English Civil War; was executed by Parliament after losing the English Civil War to Cromwell and the Roundheads
Oliver Cromwell the leader of the Roundheads in the English Civil War against Charles I and the Cavaliers; ruler of the Commonwealth after Charles I's execution; ruled with strict Puritan ways
Balance of Power distribution of military and economic power that prevents any one nation from becoming too strong
El Greco "the Greek;" a Greek-born master of Spanish painting; famous for religious paintings and portraits of Spanish nobles; his use of vibrant colors influenced many other artists
Prussia a strong military state in central Europe that emerged in the late 1600s
Armada fleet of ships; Philip sent one to invade England
Mercenary a soldier serving in a foreign army for pay
Hapsburg Empire the Central European empire that lasted form the 1400s to the 1900s; at its height included the lands of the Holy Roman Empire and the Netherlands
Divine Right the belief that a ruler's authority comes directly from God
Cardinal Richelieu a chief minister appointed by Louis XIII in 1624 who sought to destroy the power of the Huguenots and the nobles
Edict of Nantes the law issued by French King Henry IV in 1598 that gave more religious freedom to French Protestants
James I the first Stuart monarch; clashed with Parliament over money and foreign policy; ruled by divine right; fought dissenters
Partition a division into pieces
Henry IV a French king who started out fighting Catholic opposition, but eventually converted to Catholicism
Absolute Monarch a ruler with complete authority over the government and lives of the people he or she governs
Intendent an official appointed by French King Louis XIV to govern the provinces, collect taxes, and recruit soldiers
War of Austrian Succession a series of wars in which various European nations competed for power in Central Europe after the death of Hapsburg emperor Charles VI
Westernization adoption of western ideas, technology, and culture
Boyars landowning nobles in Russia under the tsars
Warm-Water Port a port that is free of ice year-round
Huguenots French Protestants of the 1500s and 1600s
Catherine the Great a German princess who married the heir to the Russian throne and took over after her husband "died;" embraced western ideas' was an absolute monarch; gained the eastern part of Poland
Charles V the ruler of the Spanish empire who fought Protestantism; faced the Muslim Ottoman Empire; eventually retired to a monestary, passing his empire to his brother Ferdinand and his son Phillip II
Versailles the royal French residence and seat of government established by King Louis XIV
English Bill of Rights the series of acts passed by the English Parliament in 1689 that limited the rights of the monarchy and ensured the superiority of Parliament; accepted by William and Mary
Jean-Baptiste Colbert King Louis XIV's brilliant finance minister, who imposed mercantilist policies to bolster France's economy
Oligarchy a government in which ruling power belongs to a few people
Electors one of seven German princes who would choose the Holy Roman Emperor
Constitutional Government a government whose power is defined and limited by law
Philip II a Spanish absolute monarch who ruled under divine right; fought Protestantism; son of Charles V
Created by: ValkrieWren